{"test_keys":{"accessible":true,"control":{"tcp_connect":{"209.202.252.20:80":{"status":true,"failure":null}},"http_request":{"body_length":14411,"failure":null,"status_code":200,"headers":{"X-Powered-By":"PHP\/5.3.3","Set-Cookie":"CookieStatus=COOKIE_OK; path=\/; expires=Tue, 19-Jan-2038 03:14:07 GMT","Vary":"Accept-Encoding","Server":"Apache\/2.2.3 (CentOS) PHP\/5.3.3 mod_ssl\/2.2.3 OpenSSL\/0.9.8b mod_perl\/2.0.2 Perl\/v5.8.8","Date":"Tue, 18 Jul 2017 10:26:57 GMT","P3P":"policyref=\"http:\/\/www.lycos.com\/w3c\/p3p.xml\", CP=\"IDC DSP COR CURa ADMa DEVa CUSa PSAa IVAa CONo OUR IND UNI STA\"","Content-Type":"text\/html","X-Server-IP":"209.202.245.183"},"title":"Lycos Mail"},"dns":{"failure":null,"addrs":["mail.lycos.com","209.202.252.20"]}},"control_failure":null,"socksproxy":null,"http_experiment_failure":null,"agent":"redirect","retries":null,"client_resolver":"75.127.97.6","dns_consistency":"consistent","dns_experiment_failure":null,"body_proportion":1.0,"blocking":false,"queries":[{"engine":"system","resolver_hostname":null,"query_type":"A","hostname":"www.mail.lycos.com","answers":[{"ipv4":"209.202.252.20","answer_type":"A","ttl":0}],"failure":null,"resolver_port":null}],"body_length_match":true,"requests":[{"failure":null,"request":{"body":"","headers":{"Accept-Language":"en-US;q=0.8,en;q=0.5","Accept":"text\/html,application\/xhtml+xml,application\/xml;q=0.9,*\/*;q=0.8","User-Agent":"Mozilla\/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit\/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome\/47.0.2526.106 Safari\/537.36"},"tor":{"is_tor":false,"exit_ip":null,"exit_name":null},"url":"http:\/\/www.mail.lycos.com\/","method":"GET"},"response":{"body":"\n\n\n\n\n \n\n\n\n\n\nLycos Mail<\/title><!--3-->\n<!--[if lt IE 9]>\n\t<script src=\"http:\/\/ly.lygo.com\/ly\/js\/html5.js\" type=\"text\/javascript\"><\/script>\n<![endif]-->\n\n<link href=\"fonts.css\" rel=\"stylesheet\" type=\"text\/css\" \/>\n<link href=\"\/css\/lyMail.css\" rel=\"stylesheet\" type=\"text\/css\" \/>\n\n<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"\/css\/socialauth.css\" type=\"text\/css\" \/>\n<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"\/css\/regBox.css\" type=\"text\/css\" \/>\n\n<link rel=\"apple-touch-icon\" sizes=\"57x57\" href=\"http:\/\/ly.lygo.com\/ly\/lycos\/2\/images\/57x57.png\"\/>\n<link rel=\"apple-touch-icon\" sizes=\"72x72\" href=\"http:\/\/ly.lygo.com\/ly\/lycos\/2\/images\/72x72.png\"\/>\n<link rel=\"apple-touch-icon\" sizes=\"114x114\" href=\"http:\/\/ly.lygo.com\/ly\/lycos\/2\/images\/114x114.png\"\/>\n<link rel=\"icon\" type=\"image\/png\" href=\"http:\/\/ly.lygo.com\/ly\/lycos\/2\/images\/favicon.ico\" \/>\n\n<script type=\"text\/javascript\">\nvar _gaq = _gaq || [];\n_gaq.push(\n ['_setAccount', 'UA-2342215-37'],\n ['_trackPageview']\n ); \n(function() {\n var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text\/javascript'; ga.async = true;\n ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 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crtg_url='http:\/\/rtax.criteo.com\/delivery\/rta\/rta.js?netId='+escape(crtg_nid);crtg_url+='&cookieName='+escape(crtg_cookiename);crtg_url+='&rnd='+crtg_rnd;crtg_url+='&varName=crtg_content';var crtg_script=document.createElement('script');crtg_script.type='text\/javascript';crtg_script.src=crtg_url;crtg_script.async=true;if(document.getElementsByTagName(\"head\").length>0)document.getElementsByTagName(\"head\")[0].appendChild(crtg_script);else if(document.getElementsByTagName(\"body\").length>0)document.getElementsByTagName(\"body\")[0].appendChild(crtg_script);\n<\/script>\n\n<!-- Contains the checkUsername() function (for domains mail login) -->\n\n\n<script type=\"text\/javascript\" src=\"http:\/\/scripts.lycos.com\/catman\/init.js\"><\/script>\n<script type=\"text\/javascript\">\n var objAdMgr=new AdManager();\n objAdMgr.setParam(\"page\",\"home\");\n objAdMgr.chooseProductSet();\n objAdMgr.renderHeader();\n<\/script>\n\n<div id=\"page\">\n<section id=\"topBar\" class=\"lyGrey boxPad\">\n\t<a href=\"http:\/\/www.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Lycos.com\" class=\"sprite mobileHide\" id=\"lyDog\"><\/a>\n\t<ul class=\"lyMenu float_left\">\n \t<li><a href=\"http:\/\/search.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Search\">Search<\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/www.mail.lycos.com\" title=\"Lycos Mail\" class=\"currentPage\">Mail<\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/www.tripod.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Tripod.com\">Tripod<\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/www.gamesville.com\/\" title=\"Gamesville.com\">Gamesville<\/a><\/li>\n\t\t<li><a href=\"http:\/\/www.lycostv.com\/\" title=\"LycosTV.com\">LycosTV<\/a><\/li>\n <li>\n \t <a href=\"#\" title=\"More Lycos Sites\" class=\"dropDown\">More <span class=\"sprite\"><\/span><\/a>\n <ul class=\"hide ddMenu lyGrey boxShadow1\">\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/domains.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Lycos Domains\">Lycos Domains<\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/news.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Lycos News\">Lycos News<\/a><\/li>\n\t\t<!-- Commented out shopping until we switch away from Zifter -->\n <!--<li><a href=\"http:\/\/shopping.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Lycos Shopping\">Lycos Shopping<\/a><\/li>-->\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/weather.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Lycos Weather\">Lycos Weather<\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/www.whowhere.com\/\" title=\"WhoWhere?\">WhoWhere?<\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"http:\/\/corp.lycos.com\/\" title=\"View All\" id=\"viewAll\">View All<\/a><\/li>\n <\/ul>\n <\/li>\n <\/ul>\n <br class=\"clear\" \/>\n<\/section>\n<header class=\"baseHeader\">\n <img src=\"\/images\/lycosMailLogo.png\" alt=\"Lycos Mail Logo\" class=\"headerLogo\" \/>\n <div class=\"headerAd\">\n <script type=\"text\/javascript\">\n\tif (objAdMgr.isSlotAvailable('leaderboard')) {\n objAdMgr.renderSlot('leaderboard');\n }\n <\/script>\n <\/div>\n<\/header>\n<section class=\"contentArea\">\n <div class=\"mainAd\">\n \t<script type=\"text\/javascript\">\n if (objAdMgr.isSlotAvailable('halfpage')) {\n objAdMgr.renderSlot('halfpage');\n }\n <\/script>\n <br 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href=\"http:\/\/registration.lycos.com\/register.php?m_PR=27&m_CBURL=http:\/\/www.mail.lycos.com\/landing.html\" title=\"sign up for free\" class=\"btn\">Sign up for Free<\/a>\n <span class=\"pad\">or<\/span>\n <a href=\"http:\/\/registration.lycos.com\/login.php?m_PR=27&m_CBURL=http:\/\/registration.lycos.com\/sales.php?m_PR=27\" title=\"Upgrade to Lycos Mail Plus\" class=\"btn btnAlt\">Upgrade to Plus<\/a>\n <\/p>\n <p class=\"txt_center\">\n \t<a href=\"#\" title=\"compare plans\" rel=\"nofollow\" id=\"theDiff\">What's the difference?<\/a>\n \t<\/p>\n <div class=\"tableHolder\">\n <table class=\"compareTable base\">\n \t<thead>\n \t<tr>\n \t<th class=\"ctTitle\"><\/th>\n <th class=\"txt_center\">Mail Free<\/th>\n <th class=\"txt_center\">Mail Plus<\/th>\n <\/tr>\n <\/thead>\n \t<tbody>\n \t<tr>\n \t<td class=\"ctTitle\">Storage<\/td>\n <td class=\"txt_center\">500MB<\/td>\n <td class=\"txt_center\">5GB<\/td>\n <\/tr>\n <tr>\n \t<td class=\"ctTitle\">No Inbox Ads<\/td>\n <td><\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <\/tr>\n <tr>\n \t<td class=\"ctTitle\">Pop3\/IMAP Access<\/td>\n <td><\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <\/tr>\n <tr>\n \t<td class=\"ctTitle\">Adv. Spam Filtering<\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <\/tr>\n <tr>\n \t<td class=\"ctTitle\">Virus Checking<\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <\/tr>\n <tr class=\"lastRow\">\n \t<td class=\"ctTitle\">Domain\/Address Blocking<\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <td class=\"checkMark\"><span>X<\/span><\/td>\n <\/tr>\n <\/tbody>\n <\/table>\n <\/div>\n \t<\/form>\n\n\n <a href=\"#\" title=\"Guide to online security\" id=\"security\" class=\"tiny txt_center show\">Guide to online security<\/a>\n\n <div class=\"securityBox\" id=\"securityShow\">\n \t<h2 class=\"delta\">Important Security Note:<\/h2>\n <p class=\"tiny\">\n \tAvoid scams! Lycos will never ask for your password via email and will only ask for information such as date of\n birth or postal address to verify your account when you communicate with customer service.\n <\/p>\n <p class=\"tiny\">If you see such a scam,\n or if you are in doubt that an email comes from Lycos, report it immediately to Customer Service by submitting a\n <a href=\"https:\/\/registration.lycos.com\/help.php?m_PR=27&task=ticket\" title=\"create a help ticket\">help ticket<\/a>.\n If you have responded to such an email, please change your password immediately to keep your account safe.\n For help on changing your password,\n <a href=\"https:\/\/cshelp.lycos.com\/entries\/23014577-How-can-I-have-my-password-reset-I-forgot-it-\" title=\"Get help with changing your password\" rel=\"nofollow\">click here<\/a>.\n <\/p>\n <p class=\"tiny\">\n <a href=\"http:\/\/www.microsoft.com\/security\/online-privacy\/phishing-faq.aspx\" rel=\"nofollow\" title=\"More information on phishing attacks\">Click here<\/a> for more information on phishing attacks.\n <\/p>\n <div class=\"txt_center\">\n \t<a href=\"#\" title=\"close this window\" class=\"btn btnAlt\" rel=\"nofollow\" id=\"securityClose\">Close<\/a>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n<\/section>\n<\/div>\n<footer class=\"lyGrey\">\n<ul class=\"overflow\">\n \t<li>© 2017 <a href=\"http:\/\/www.lycos.com\/\" title=\"Lycos, Inc.\">Lycos, Inc<\/a>. 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(noscript) -->\n<!-- Qualaroo -->\n<script type=\"text\/javascript\">\n var _kiq = _kiq || [];\n (function(){\n setTimeout(function(){\n var d = document, f = d.getElementsByTagName('script')[0], s = d.createElement('script'); s.type = 'text\/javascript';\n s.async = true; s.src = '\/\/s3.amazonaws.com\/ki.js\/65603\/fhM.js'; f.parentNode.insertBefore(s, f);\n }, 1);\n })();\n<\/script>\n\n\n\n<div class=\"main\">\n <header class=\"header-site\" id=\"header-site\">\n <div class=\"wrap\">\n <div class=\"nav-wrap\">\n <h1><a href=\"\/\"><i class=\"icon icon-home\"><\/i> <span class=\"element-invisible\">AWID<\/span> <b class=\"sub-super\">Women's Rights<\/b><\/a><\/h1>\n\n <a href=\"#main-content\" class=\"element-invisible element-focusable\">Skip to main content<\/a>\n <a href=\"#nav-site\" id=\"toggle-nav\" class=\"toggle-nav element-invisible\"><i>Skip to Navigation<\/i><\/a>\n <a href=\"#site-search\" id=\"toggle-search\" class=\"toggle-search element-invisible\"><i>Skip to Site 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title=\"\">Resources<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/special-focus-sections\/co-creating-feminist-futures\" title=\"\">Our Forum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/membership-overview\" title=\"\">Our Members<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul> \n <\/nav>\n <\/div>\n <\/header>\n\n <header class=\"header-banner\">\n <div class=\"site-search\" id=\"site-search\">\n <div class=\"wrap\">\n <ul class=\"social list-icons-alone\">\n <li><a href=\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/AWID\" class=\"icon icon-twitter\" title=\"Twitter\" target=\"_blank\"><\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"https:\/\/www.facebook.com\/AWIDWomensRights\" class=\"icon icon-facebook\" title=\"Facebook\" target=\"_blank\"><\/a><\/li>\n <li><a href=\"https:\/\/www.instagram.com\/awidwomensrights\/\" class=\"icon icon-instagram\" title=\"Instagram\" target=\"_blank\"><\/a><\/li>\n <\/ul>\n \n \n<div role=\"search\">\n \n \n \n <form action=\"\/\" method=\"post\" id=\"search-block-form\" accept-charset=\"UTF-8\">\n <h2 class=\"element-invisible\">Search form<\/h2>\n\n<div>\n <label class=\"element-invisible\" for=\"edit-search-block-form--2\">Search<\/label>\n <input title=\"Enter the terms you wish to search for.\" placeholder=\"Search\" type=\"text\" id=\"edit-search-block-form--2\" name=\"search_block_form\" value=\"\" size=\"30\" maxlength=\"128\" \/>\n<\/div>\n<div class=\"form-actions form-wrapper\" id=\"edit-actions--2\"><input type=\"submit\" id=\"edit-submit--2\" name=\"op\" value=\"Go\" \/><\/div><input type=\"hidden\" name=\"form_build_id\" value=\"form-IayzQYLKyJs5vI21cAkaAsFXJK27_2O1vOueW1HrPOk\" \/>\n<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"form_id\" value=\"search_block_form\" \/>\n<\/form>\n <\/div>\n \n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n\n <div class=\"img\" style=\"background-image: url('https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/banners\/banner3-dancebrazil-pink-web_0.jpg');\"><\/div>\n\n <div class=\"content\" id=\"waypoint-nav-switcher\">\n <div class=\"wrap\">\n <h3>AWID is an international, feminist, membership organisation committed to achieving gender equality, sustainable development and women\u2019s human rights<\/h3>\n <a href=\"\/membership-why\" class=\"button outline pointy strong\">Become a Member<\/a> <\/div>\n <\/div>\n <\/header>\n\n\n <div role=\"main\" id=\"main-content\" class=\"main-content\">\n <!-- if photo credit -->\n <p class=\"wrap photo-credit\">© Sabriya Simon - modified<\/p>\n <!-- \/ -->\n\n \n \n \n \n \n \t \n\t\t\n \n<div class=\"panel wrap bg-dark\">\n <div class=\"grid grid-four\">\n <div class=\"col-three-quart\">\n <h2 class=\"alpha\">Featured<\/h2>\n <div class=\"grid grid-three-late\">\n \n\n\n\n\n \n \n \n \n <!--<div class=\"grid grid-two-furious\">-->\n <div>\n \n<a href=\"\/news-and-analysis\/solidarity-those-arrested-turkey-we-call-their-immediate-release\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img\"><figure class=\"minor\">\n <!-- scald=4387:just_media --><img typeof=\"foaf:Image\" src=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/thumbnails\/image\/35_idil_and_hrds_montage_for_web_header-610x470.jpg\" alt=\"Idil Eser & 7 other HRDs -montage by the WHRD-IC 610x470\" title=\"Idil Eser & 7 other HRDs -montage by the WHRD-IC 610x470\" \/><!-- END scald=4387 --> <\/figure>\n<div class=\"content js-heightmatch\"><i class=\"tag\">Statements<\/i>\n <time property=\"dc:date\" datatype=\"xsd:dateTime\" content=\"2017-07-12T00:45:00-07:00\" datetime=\"2017-07-12T00:45:00-07:00\">12 July 2017<\/time><h3 class=\"limit-height\">In solidarity with those arrested in Turkey, we call for their immediate release.<\/h3>\n<i class=\"source\"><b>Source:<\/b> Women Human Rights Defenders International Coalition (WHRDIC) \/ AWID<\/i>\n<\/div><\/a> <\/div>\n <div>\n \n<a href=\"\/news-and-analysis\/bahrain-free-women-human-rights-defender-ebtisam-al-saegh\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img\"><figure class=\"minor\">\n <!-- scald=4384:just_media --><img typeof=\"foaf:Image\" src=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/thumbnails\/image\/170710_ebtisam-al-saegh-whrdic-610x470.jpg\" alt=\"WHRD in Barhain: Ebtisam Al-Saegh (WHRD-IC) 610x470\" title=\"WHRD in Barhain: Ebtisam Al-Saegh (WHRD-IC) 610x470\" \/><!-- END scald=4384 --> <\/figure>\n<div class=\"content js-heightmatch\"><i class=\"tag\">Statements<\/i>\n <time property=\"dc:date\" datatype=\"xsd:dateTime\" content=\"2017-07-10T02:30:00-07:00\" datetime=\"2017-07-10T02:30:00-07:00\">10 July 2017<\/time><h3 class=\"limit-height\">Bahrain: Free Women Human Rights Defender Ebtisam Al-Saegh<\/h3>\n<i class=\"source\"><b>Source:<\/b> Women Human Rights Coalition (WHRDIC) \/ AWID<\/i>\n<\/div><\/a> <\/div>\n <div>\n \n<a href=\"\/news-and-analysis\/feminist-and-transnational-corporation-walk-united-nations\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img\"><figure class=\"minor\">\n <!-- scald=4373:just_media --><img typeof=\"foaf:Image\" src=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/thumbnails\/image\/hrc-2015_flower610x470.jpg\" alt=\"HRC - The Power of Empowered Women Side Event - 26 February 2013. Photo by Violaine Martin (610x470)\" title=\"HRC - The Power of Empowered Women Side Event - 26 February 2013. Photo by Violaine Martin (610x470)\" \/><!-- END scald=4373 --> <\/figure>\n<div class=\"content js-heightmatch\"><i class=\"tag\">Analysis<\/i>\n <time property=\"dc:date\" datatype=\"xsd:dateTime\" content=\"2017-07-03T08:45:00-07:00\" datetime=\"2017-07-03T08:45:00-07:00\">3 July 2017<\/time><h3 class=\"limit-height\">A feminist and a transnational corporation walk into the United Nations...<\/h3>\n<i class=\"source\"><b>Source:<\/b> AWID<\/i>\n<\/div><\/a> <\/div>\n <!--<\/div>-->\n \n \n \n\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n \n <div class=\"col-one-quart\">\n \n\n\n\n\n \n \n \n <h2 class=\"alpha\">Our Forum<\/h2>\n\n<a href=\"\/special-focus-sections\/co-creating-feminist-futures\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img js-heightmatch-group-1\">\n <figure class=\"minor\">\n <img src=\"\/sites\/all\/modules\/custom\/awid_membership_blocks\/img\/AWID-Forum_ClaudiaFerreira-610x470.png\">\n <\/figure>\n <div class=\"content\">\n <i class=\"tag\">Special Focus<\/i>\n <h3>Co-creating Feminist Futures<\/h3>\n <\/div>\n<\/a>\n\n \n \n\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n<\/div>\n \n<div class=\"panel wrap bg-dark-colour\">\n \n <h2 class=\"alpha\">Priority Areas<\/h2>\n \n <ul class=\"grid grid-two\"><li><a href=\"\/priority-areas\/resourcing-womens-rights\" class=\"link-icon icon-large icon-plant\">Resourcing Women's Rights<\/a><\/li><li><a href=\"\/priority-areas\/economic-justice\" class=\"link-icon icon-large icon-scales\">Economic Justice<\/a><\/li><li><a href=\"\/priority-areas\/challenging-religious-fundamentalisms\" class=\"link-icon icon-large icon-globe\">Challenging Religious Fundamentalisms<\/a><\/li><li><a href=\"\/priority-areas\/women-human-rights-defenders\" class=\"link-icon icon-large icon-face\">Women Human Rights Defenders<\/a><\/li><li><a href=\"\/priority-areas\/young-feminist-activism\" class=\"link-icon icon-large icon-fist\">Young Feminist Activism<\/a><\/li><\/ul>\n<\/div>\n\n<div class=\"panel wrap bg-darker\">\n <div class=\"grid grid-four\">\n <div class=\"col-three-quart\">\n \n <h2 class=\"alpha\">Urgent Actions<\/h2>\n \n <div class=\"grid grid-three-late\">\n \n\n\n\n\n \n \n \n \n <!--<div class=\"grid grid-two-furious\">-->\n <div>\n \n<a href=\"\/get-involved\/turkey-detention-eight-human-rights-defenders\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img\"><img src=\"\/sites\/all\/themes\/awid\/img\/regionmaps\/maparea-middle-east.jpg\" class=\"map\" \/><figure class=\"minor\">\n <!-- scald=3476:just_media --><img typeof=\"foaf:Image\" src=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/thumbnails\/image\/womenturkey-jordiboixareu-flickr610x470.png\" alt=\"Women in Turkey (610x470)\" title=\"Women in Turkey (610x470)\" \/><!-- END scald=3476 --> <\/figure>\n<div class=\"content js-heightmatch\"><i class=\"tag\">Urgent Actions<\/i>\n <time>6 July 2017<\/time>\n<h3 class=\"limit-height\">Turkey: Detention of eight human rights defenders<\/h3>\n<i class=\"source\"><b>Source:<\/b> Frontline Defenders<\/i>\n<\/div><\/a> <\/div>\n <div>\n \n<a href=\"\/get-involved\/intimidation-and-death-threats-against-aura-lolita-chavez\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img\"><img src=\"\/sites\/all\/themes\/awid\/img\/regionmaps\/maparea-latin-america.jpg\" class=\"map\" \/><figure class=\"minor\">\n <!-- scald=4352:just_media --><img typeof=\"foaf:Image\" src=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/thumbnails\/image\/aura-lolita-chavez_fld610x470.jpg\" alt=\"Aura Lolita Ch\u00e1vez - FrontLine Defenders (610x470)\" title=\"Aura Lolita Ch\u00e1vez - FrontLine Defenders (610x470)\" \/><!-- END scald=4352 --> <\/figure>\n<div class=\"content js-heightmatch\"><i class=\"tag\">Urgent Actions<\/i>\n <time>20 June 2017<\/time>\n<h3 class=\"limit-height\">Intimidation and death threats against Aura Lolita Ch\u00e1vez<\/h3>\n<i class=\"source\"><b>Source:<\/b> Front Line Defenders<\/i>\n<\/div><\/a> <\/div>\n <div>\n \n<a href=\"\/get-involved\/urge-el-salvador-legislators-decriminalize-abortion\" class=\"tile tile-minor-img\"><img src=\"\/sites\/all\/themes\/awid\/img\/regionmaps\/maparea-latin-america.jpg\" class=\"map\" \/><figure class=\"minor\">\n <!-- scald=4244:just_media --><img typeof=\"foaf:Image\" src=\"https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/default\/files\/thumbnails\/image\/170515_campaignforsafeabortion_elsalvador610x470.jpg\" alt=\"Campaign for Safe Abortion - Solidarity Request with El Salvador (610x470)\" title=\"Campaign for Safe Abortion - Solidarity Request with El Salvador (610x470)\" \/><!-- END scald=4244 --> <\/figure>\n<div class=\"content js-heightmatch\"><i class=\"tag\">Urgent Actions<\/i>\n <time>16 May 2017<\/time>\n<h3 class=\"limit-height\">Urge El Salvador legislators to decriminalize abortion<\/h3>\n<i class=\"source\"><b>Source:<\/b> The International Campaign for Women\u2019s Right to Safe Abortion<\/i>\n<\/div><\/a> <\/div>\n <!--<\/div>-->\n \n \n \n\n <a href=\"\/focus-on-get-involved?tid_i18n%5B0%5D=1\" class=\"sub caps pointy\">More<\/a> <\/div>\n \n <\/div>\n \n <div class=\"col-one-quart\">\n \n <h2 class=\"alpha\">Explore more<\/h2>\n <div>\n \n <a href=\"\/special-focus\" class=\"button boxed js-heightmatch-group-3\" style=\"background-image: url('https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/all\/themes\/awid\/img\/tile19.png');\">\n <h3>Special Focus<\/h3>\n <p>Our Special Focus explore areas of current interest in greater depth.<\/p>\n <b class=\"pointy caps\">Go<\/b>\n <\/a>\n <\/div>\n <div>\n \n <a href=\"\/our-companion-sites\" class=\"button boxed js-heightmatch-group-3\" style=\"background-image: url('https:\/\/www.awid.org\/sites\/all\/themes\/awid\/img\/tile20.png');\">\n <h3>Companion Sites<\/h3>\n <p>Check out all other websites closely linked to our work.<\/p>\n <b class=\"pointy caps\">Go<\/b>\n <\/a>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n<\/div>\n\n<div class=\"panel wrap bg-dark\"> \n \n\n\n\n\n \n \n \n <h2 class=\"alpha\">\n <a href=\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/AWID\" class=\"sub-super pointy no-margin\">Follow Us<\/a>\n<\/h2>\n\n<div class=\"grid grid-two\">\n\n <div>\n <div class=\"tile\">\n <blockquote class=\"twitter\">\n <p>RT <a href=\"http:\/\/www.twitter.com\/FIANista\">@FIANista<\/a>: After #G20 fail, people mobilize in Basque Country <a href=\"https:\/\/t.co\/YVVYu4UmjL\" target=\"_blank\">https:\/\/t.co\/YVVYu4UmjL<\/a> Taking the lead 2 real solutions #climatechange #r<\/p>\n <\/blockquote>\n <div class=\"content\">\n <i><a href=\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/AWID\" target=\"_blank\">@AWID<\/a> about 15 hours ago<\/i>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n <div>\n <div class=\"tile\">\n <blockquote class=\"twitter\">\n <p>RT <a href=\"http:\/\/www.twitter.com\/via_campesina\">@via_campesina<\/a>: <a href=\"http:\/\/www.twitter.com\/ECVC1\">@ECVC1<\/a> <a href=\"http:\/\/www.twitter.com\/viacampesinaFR\">@viacampesinaFR<\/a> <a href=\"http:\/\/www.twitter.com\/via_campesinaSP\">@via_campesinaSP<\/a> <a href=\"http:\/\/www.twitter.com\/EHNEBizkaia\">@EHNEBizkaia<\/a> Young peasants are organising this #YouthAssembly to create strateg<\/p>\n <\/blockquote>\n <div class=\"content\">\n <i><a href=\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/AWID\" target=\"_blank\">@AWID<\/a> about 16 hours ago<\/i>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n <\/div>\n \n<\/div>\n\n \n \n\n<\/div>\n \n\t\t\n\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n\n\n<footer class=\"footer-site\" id=\"site-footer\">\n<div class=\"wrap\">\n<div class=\"grid grid-two\">\n <div class=\"member\">\n <h3 class=\"alpha\">Become a member<\/h3>\n <p>AWID currently has over 5000 members, individual and institutional, from 164 countries. 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data-file-width=\"128\" data-file-height=\"128\" \/><\/a><\/div>\n<\/div>\n\t\t\t<h1 id=\"firstHeading\" class=\"firstHeading\" lang=\"en\">The Holocaust<\/h1>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<div id=\"bodyContent\" class=\"mw-body-content\">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<div id=\"siteSub\">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<\/div>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<div id=\"contentSub\"><span class=\"mw-redirectedfrom\">\u00a0\u00a0(Redirected from <a href=\"\/w\/index.php?title=The_holocaust&redirect=no\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"The holocaust\">The holocaust<\/a>)<\/span><\/div>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<div id=\"jump-to-nav\" class=\"mw-jump\">\n\t\t\t\t\tJump to:\t\t\t\t\t<a href=\"#mw-head\">navigation<\/a>, \t\t\t\t\t<a href=\"#p-search\">search<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t<\/div>\n\t\t\t\t<div id=\"mw-content-text\" lang=\"en\" dir=\"ltr\" class=\"mw-content-ltr\"><div class=\"mw-parser-output\"><div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">\"Holocaust\" and \"Shoah\" redirect here. For other uses, see <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_(disambiguation)\" class=\"mw-disambig\" title=\"Holocaust (disambiguation)\">Holocaust (disambiguation)<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Shoah_(disambiguation)\" class=\"mw-disambig\" title=\"Shoah (disambiguation)\">Shoah (disambiguation)<\/a>.<\/div>\n<table class=\"infobox vevent\" style=\"width:22em\">\n<tr>\n<th colspan=\"2\" class=\"summary\" style=\"text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;font-size:130%;\">The Holocaust<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:center\">Part of <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:center\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"Selection Birkenau ramp.jpg\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/8\/89\/Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg\/220px-Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"157\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/8\/89\/Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg\/330px-Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/8\/89\/Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg\/440px-Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"897\" data-file-height=\"639\" \/><\/a>\n<div><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Hungary\" title=\"History of the Jews in Hungary\">Hungarian Jews<\/a> being selected by Nazis to be sent to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_chamber#Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Gas chamber\">gas chamber<\/a> at <a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz concentration camp<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_Album\" title=\"Auschwitz Album\">Auschwitz Album<\/a> May\/June 1944<sup id=\"cite_ref-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-1\">[1]<\/a><\/sup><\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">Location<\/th>\n<td class=\"location\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/a> and German-occupied territories<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">Date<\/th>\n<td>1941\u20131945<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">Target<\/th>\n<td>European Jews\u2014broader usage of the term \"Holocaust\" includes victims of other Nazi crimes.<sup id=\"cite_ref-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-3\">[a]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;\">Attack type<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">Genocide<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_cleansing\" title=\"Ethnic cleansing\">ethnic cleansing<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Deportation\" title=\"Deportation\">deportation<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_murder\" title=\"Mass murder\">mass murder<\/a><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">Deaths<\/th>\n<td>6,000,000\u201311,000,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">Perpetrators<\/th>\n<td><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/a> and its allies<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;\"><abbr title=\"Number\">No.<\/abbr> of participants<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td>200,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks nowraplinks hlist\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%\">\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em\">Part of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:The_Holocaust\" title=\"Category:The Holocaust\">a series<\/a> on<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;padding-top:0;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em;background-color:#B0C4DE;;font-size:160%;; padding:0.25em;\"><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0.2em 0 0.4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\" class=\"image\" title=\"Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944\"><img alt=\"Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f2\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\/180px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\" width=\"180\" height=\"136\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f2\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\/270px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f2\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\/360px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2253\" data-file-height=\"1707\" \/><\/a><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Responsibility for the Holocaust\">Responsibility<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none\">\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><span style=\"font-size:110%;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/a><\/span><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i>People<\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_major_perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust\">Major perpetrators<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Adolf Hitler\">Adolf Hitler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Himmler\" title=\"Heinrich Himmler\">Heinrich Himmler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reinhard_Heydrich\" title=\"Reinhard Heydrich\">Reinhard Heydrich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Eichmann\" title=\"Adolf Eichmann\">Adolf Eichmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Odilo_Globocnik\" title=\"Odilo Globocnik\">Odilo Globocnik<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Theodor_Eicke\" title=\"Theodor Eicke\">Theodor Eicke<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Gl%C3%BCcks\" title=\"Richard Gl\u00fccks\">Richard Gl\u00fccks<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner\" title=\"Ernst Kaltenbrunner\">Ernst Kaltenbrunner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_H%C3%B6ss\" title=\"Rudolf H\u00f6ss\">Rudolf H\u00f6ss<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Christian_Wirth\" title=\"Christian Wirth\">Christian Wirth<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joseph_Goebbels\" title=\"Joseph Goebbels\">Joseph Goebbels<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i>Organizations<\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Party\" title=\"Nazi Party\">Nazi Party<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gestapo\" title=\"Gestapo\">Gestapo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzstaffel\" title=\"Schutzstaffel\"><i>Schutzstaffel<\/i> (SS)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/SS-Totenkopfverb%C3%A4nde\" title=\"SS-Totenkopfverb\u00e4nde\"><i>Totenkopfverb\u00e4nde<\/i> (SS-TV)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sturmabteilung\" title=\"Sturmabteilung\"><i>Sturmabteilung<\/i> (SA)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/SS-Verf%C3%BCgungstruppe\" title=\"SS-Verf\u00fcgungstruppe\"><i>Verf\u00fcgungstruppe<\/i> (SS-VT)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht\" title=\"War crimes of the Wehrmacht\">Wehrmacht<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.4em 0;\">\n<dl>\n<dt><a href=\"\/wiki\/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II\">Collaborators during World War II<\/a><\/dt>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<dl>\n<dt><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_ideologues\" title=\"List of Nazi ideologues\">Nazi ideologues<\/a><\/dt>\n<\/dl>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\">Early policies<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Racial policy of Nazi Germany\">Racial policy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_eugenics\" title=\"Nazi eugenics\">Nazi eugenics<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_Laws\" title=\"Nuremberg Laws\">Nuremberg Laws<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Haavara_Agreement\" title=\"Haavara Agreement\">Haavara Agreement<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Madagascar_Plan\" title=\"Madagascar Plan\">Madagascar Plan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Action_T4\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Action T4\">Forced euthanasia<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_victims\" title=\"Holocaust victims\">Victims<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_during_World_War_II\" title=\"History of the Jews during World War II\">Jews during World War II<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jews_in_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Jews in Europe\">Europe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jews_in_Germany\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Jews in Germany\">Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Romani people (Gypsies)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_ethnic_Poles\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles\">Poles<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_Soviet_POWs\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs\">Soviet POWs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Slavs in Eastern Europe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust\">Homosexuals<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Action_T4\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Action T4\">People with disabilities<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Suppression_of_Freemasonry#Nazi_Germany_and_occupied_Europe\" title=\"Suppression of Freemasonry\">Freemasons<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe\">Ghettos<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Budapest_Ghetto\" title=\"Budapest Ghetto\">Budapest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kovno_Ghetto\" title=\"Kovno Ghetto\">Kaunas<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Krak\u00f3w Ghetto\">Krak\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0141\u00f3d\u017a Ghetto\">\u0141\u00f3d\u017a<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lublin_Ghetto\" title=\"Lublin Ghetto\">Lublin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Lw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Lw\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Minsk_Ghetto\" title=\"Minsk Ghetto\">Minsk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Riga_Ghetto\" title=\"Riga Ghetto\">Riga<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vilna_Ghetto\" title=\"Vilna Ghetto\">Vilnius<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<hr \/>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland\" title=\"Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland\">Jewish ghettos in<br \/>\nGerman-occupied Poland<\/a><\/div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi-era_ghettos\" title=\"List of Nazi-era ghettos\">List of selected ghettos<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\">Atrocities<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none\">\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom#Nazi-occupied_Europe\" title=\"Pogrom\">Pogroms<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kristallnacht\" title=\"Kristallnacht\">Kristallnacht<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Legionnaires%27_rebellion_and_Bucharest_pogrom\" title=\"Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom\">Bucharest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dorohoi_pogrom\" title=\"Dorohoi pogrom\">Dorohoi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ia%C8%99i_pogrom\" title=\"Ia\u0219i pogrom\">Ia\u015fi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Izieu\" title=\"Izieu\">Izieu<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jedwabne_pogrom\" title=\"Jedwabne pogrom\">Jedwabne<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaunas_pogrom\" title=\"Kaunas pogrom\">Kaunas<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv (Lvov)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Round_up_of_Marseille\" title=\"Round up of Marseille\">Marseille<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Oradour-sur-Glane\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Oradour-sur-Glane\">Oradour-sur-Glane<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tulle_massacre\" title=\"Tulle massacre\">Tulle<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tykocin_pogrom\" title=\"Tykocin pogrom\">Tykocin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vel%27_d%27Hiv_Roundup\" title=\"Vel' d'Hiv Roundup\">Vel' d'Hiv<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/W%C4%85sosz_pogrom\" title=\"W\u0105sosz pogrom\">W\u0105sosz<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar\" title=\"Babi Yar\">Babi Yar<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Valley_of_Death_(Bydgoszcz)\" title=\"Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz)\">Bydgoszcz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cz%C4%99stochowa_massacre\" title=\"Cz\u0119stochowa massacre\">Cz\u0119stochowa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre\" title=\"Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre\">Kamianets-Podilskyi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ninth_Fort\" title=\"Ninth Fort\">Ninth Fort<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1941_Odessa_massacre\" title=\"1941 Odessa massacre\">Odessa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_murders_in_Pia%C5%9Bnica\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Mass murders in Pia\u015bnica\">Pia\u015bnica<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ponary_massacre\" title=\"Ponary massacre\">Ponary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rumbula_massacre\" title=\"Rumbula massacre\">Rumbula<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_Erntefest\" title=\"Aktion Erntefest\">Erntefest<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i>\"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a>\"<\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wannsee_Conference\" title=\"Wannsee Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation \"Reinhard\"<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_train\" title=\"Holocaust train\">Holocaust trains<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination camps<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe\" title=\"End of World War II in Europe\">End of World War II<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wola_massacre\" title=\"Wola massacre\">Wola massacre<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Death_marches_(Holocaust)\" title=\"Death marches (Holocaust)\">Death marches<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\">Camps<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none\">\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Nazi extermination camps<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz-Birkenau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Chelmno_extermination_camp\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Chelmno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jasenovac_concentration_camp\" title=\"Jasenovac concentration camp\">Jasenovac<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp\" title=\"Maly Trostenets extermination camp\">Maly Trostenets<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sajmi%C5%A1te_concentration_camp\" title=\"Sajmi\u0161te concentration camp\">Sajmi\u0161te<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"Nazi concentration camps\">Nazi concentration camps<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Bergen-Belsen concentration camp\">Bergen-Belsen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bogdanovka\" title=\"Bogdanovka\">Bogdanovka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Buchenwald_concentration_camp\" title=\"Buchenwald concentration camp\">Buchenwald<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dachau_concentration_camp\" title=\"Dachau concentration camp\">Dachau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mittelbau-Dora\" title=\"Mittelbau-Dora\">Dora<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gonars_concentration_camp\" title=\"Gonars concentration camp\">Gonars (Italy)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gross-Rosen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Gross-Rosen concentration camp\">Gross-Rosen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Herzogenbusch_concentration_camp\" title=\"Herzogenbusch concentration camp\">Herzogenbusch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Janowska_concentration_camp\" title=\"Janowska concentration camp\">Janowska<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaiserwald_concentration_camp\" title=\"Kaiserwald concentration camp\">Kaiserwald<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mauthausen-Gusen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp\">Mauthausen-Gusen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Neuengamme_concentration_camp\" title=\"Neuengamme concentration camp\">Neuengamme<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rab_concentration_camp\" title=\"Rab concentration camp\">Rab<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp\" title=\"Ravensbr\u00fcck concentration camp\">Ravensbr\u00fcck<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Sachsenhausen concentration camp\">Sachsenhausen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Salaspils_concentration_camp\" title=\"Salaspils concentration camp\">Salaspils<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stutthof_concentration_camp\" title=\"Stutthof concentration camp\">Stutthof<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp\" title=\"Theresienstadt concentration camp\">Theresienstadt<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Uckermark_concentration_camp\" title=\"Uckermark concentration camp\">Uckermark<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_concentration_camp\" title=\"Warsaw concentration camp\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i>Transit and collection camps<\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<dl>\n<dt>Belgium<\/dt>\n<\/dl>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fort_Breendonk\" title=\"Fort Breendonk\">Breendonk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mechelen_transit_camp\" title=\"Mechelen transit camp\">Mechelen<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<dl>\n<dt><a href=\"\/wiki\/Concentration_camps_in_France\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Concentration camps in France\">France<\/a><\/dt>\n<\/dl>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gurs_internment_camp\" title=\"Gurs internment camp\">Gurs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drancy_internment_camp\" title=\"Drancy internment camp\">Drancy<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<dl>\n<dt>Italy<\/dt>\n<\/dl>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bolzano_Transit_Camp\" title=\"Bolzano Transit Camp\">Bolzano<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<dl>\n<dt>Netherlands<\/dt>\n<\/dl>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Amersfoort_concentration_camp\" title=\"Amersfoort concentration camp\">Amersfoort<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Westerbork_concentration_camp\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Westerbork concentration camp\">Westerbork<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i>Divisions<\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/SS-Totenkopfverb%C3%A4nde\" title=\"SS-Totenkopfverb\u00e4nde\">SS-Totenkopfverb\u00e4nde<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Concentration_Camps_Inspectorate\" title=\"Concentration Camps Inspectorate\">Concentration Camps Inspectorate<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Politische_Abteilung\" title=\"Politische Abteilung\">Politische Abteilung<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sanit%C3%A4tswesen\" title=\"Sanit\u00e4tswesen\">Sanit\u00e4tswesen<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i>Extermination methods<\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_van\" title=\"Gas van\">Gas van<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_chamber\" title=\"Gas chamber\">Gas chamber<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_through_labor\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Extermination through labor\">Extermination through labor<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Human medical experimentation<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_resistance_under_Nazi_rule\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Jewish resistance under Nazi rule\">Resistance<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none\">\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_partisans\" title=\"Jewish partisans\">Jewish partisans<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bricha\" title=\"Bricha\">Bricha<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Ghetto uprising\">Ghetto uprisings<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto Uprising\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_Uprising\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto Uprising\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%81achwa_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0141achwa Ghetto\">\u0141achwa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cz%C4%99stochowa_Ghetto_Uprising\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Cz\u0119stochowa Ghetto Uprising\">Cz\u0119stochowa<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allies_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Allies of World War II\">Allied<\/a> response<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joint_Declaration_by_Members_of_the_United_Nations\" title=\"Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations\">Joint Declaration by Members of<br \/>\nthe United Nations<\/a><\/div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_bombing_debate\" title=\"Auschwitz bombing debate\">Auschwitz bombing debate<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_trials\" title=\"Nuremberg trials\">Nuremberg trials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Denazification\" title=\"Denazification\">Denazification<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Aftermath of the Holocaust\">Aftermath<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bricha\" title=\"Bricha\">Bricha<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sh%27erit_ha-Pletah\" title=\"Sh'erit ha-Pletah\">Displaced persons<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Central_Committee_of_the_Liberated_Jews\" title=\"Central Committee of the Liberated Jews\">Central Committee of the Liberated Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reparations_Agreement_between_Israel_and_West_Germany\" title=\"Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany\">Reparations Agreement between<br \/>\nIsrael and West Germany<\/a><\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\">Lists<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_survivors\" title=\"List of Holocaust survivors\">Holocaust survivors<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_deportations_of_French_Jews_to_death_camps\" title=\"Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps\">Deportations of French Jews<br \/>\nto death camps<\/a><\/div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_survivors_of_Sobib%C3%B3r\" title=\"List of survivors of Sobib\u00f3r\">Survivors of Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_Treblinka\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Timeline of Treblinka\">Timeline of Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_victims_of_Nazism\" title=\"List of victims of Nazism\">Victims of Nazism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_individuals_and_groups_assisting_Jews_during_the_Holocaust\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"List of individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust\">Rescuers of Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\">Resources<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bibliography_of_The_Holocaust\" title=\"Bibliography of The Holocaust\">Bibliography<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Destruction_of_the_European_Jews\" title=\"The Destruction of the European Jews\">The Destruction of the<br \/>\nEuropean Jews<\/a><\/i><\/div>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Functionalism_versus_intentionalism\" title=\"Functionalism versus intentionalism\">Functionalism versus<br \/>\nintentionalism<\/a><\/div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_Protocols\" title=\"Auschwitz Protocols\">Auschwitz Protocols<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vrba%E2%80%93Wetzler_report\" title=\"Vrba\u2013Wetzler report\">Vrba\u2013Wetzler report<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;\">Remembrance<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_Memorial_Day\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Holocaust Memorial Day\">Days of remembrance<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_memorials_and_museums\" title=\"List of Holocaust memorials and museums\">Memorials and museums<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:The_Holocaust_sidebar\" title=\"Template:The Holocaust sidebar\"><abbr title=\"View this template\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:The_Holocaust_sidebar\" title=\"Template talk:The Holocaust sidebar\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:The_Holocaust_sidebar&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<p><b>The Holocaust<\/b>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-5\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-5\">[b]<\/a><\/sup> also referred to as the <b>Shoah<\/b>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-6\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-6\">[c]<\/a><\/sup> was a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">genocide<\/a> in which some six million European <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jews\" title=\"Jews\">Jews<\/a> were killed by <a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Adolf Hitler\">Adolf Hitler<\/a>'s <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/a>, and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a> collaborators with the Nazis. The victims included <a href=\"\/wiki\/Children_in_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Children in the Holocaust\">1.5 million children<\/a>, and constituted about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Continental_Europe\" title=\"Continental Europe\">Continental Europe<\/a>. A broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_murder\" title=\"Mass murder\">mass murder<\/a>. The <a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Romani<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation\" title=\"Nazi crimes against the Polish nation\">Poles<\/a>, and other <a href=\"\/wiki\/Slavs\" title=\"Slavs\">Slavic ethnic groups<\/a>, along with the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">Aktion T4<\/a> patients who were mentally and physically disabled are most commonly included among the broader victims, but can also include Soviet citizens and prisoners-of-war, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, blacks, political opponents of the Nazis, and other smaller groups.<\/p>\n<p>From 1941 to 1945, Jews were systematically murdered in a genocide, which was part of a larger event including the persecution and murder of other peoples in Europe. Under the coordination of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzstaffel\" title=\"Schutzstaffel\">SS<\/a>, with directions from the highest leadership of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Party\" title=\"Nazi Party\">Nazi Party<\/a>, every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in both the logistics and the carrying out of the mass murder. Killings took place throughout <a href=\"\/wiki\/German-occupied_Europe\" title=\"German-occupied Europe\">German-occupied Europe<\/a>, as well as within Nazi Germany, and across all <a href=\"\/wiki\/Axis_powers\" title=\"Axis powers\">territories controlled by its allies<\/a>. Other victims of Nazi crimes included <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation\" title=\"Nazi crimes against the Polish nation\">ethnic Poles<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukrainians<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">other Slavs<\/a>; Soviet citizens and <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war\" title=\"German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war\">Soviet POWs<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Communists\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Communists\">communists<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust\">homosexuals<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/a>; and others. Some 42,500 detention facilities were utilized in the concentration of victims for the purpose of committing gross violations of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Human_rights\" title=\"Human rights\">human rights<\/a>. Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators.<\/p>\n<p>The persecution was carried out in stages, culminating in the policy of extermination which was termed the \"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a> to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Question\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Jewish Question\">Jewish Question<\/a>\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614_7-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614-7\">[4]<\/a><\/sup> Following <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hitler%27s_rise_to_power\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Hitler's rise to power\">Hitler's rise to power<\/a>, the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, most prominently the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_Laws\" title=\"Nuremberg Laws\">Nuremberg Laws of 1935<\/a>. Starting in 1933 the Nazis began to establish a network of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"Nazi concentration camps\">concentration camps<\/a>. After the <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">outbreak of war<\/a> in 1939 both German and foreign Jews were <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_German-occupied_Europe_(1939%E2%80%931944)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939\u20131944)\">herded into wartime ghettos<\/a>. In 1941, as Germany began to conquer new territory in the East, all anti-Jewish measures radicalized. Specialized paramilitary units called <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i> murdered around two million Jews in mass shootings in less than a year. By mid-1942, victims were regularly being transported by <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_train\" title=\"Holocaust train\">freight trains<\/a> to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">extermination camps<\/a>. Most who survived the journey were systematically killed in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_gas_chambers\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi gas chambers\">gas chambers<\/a>. This continued until the <a href=\"\/wiki\/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe\" title=\"End of World War II in Europe\">end of World War II in Europe<\/a> in April\u2013May 1945.<\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_resistance_under_Nazi_rule\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Jewish resistance under Nazi rule\">Jewish armed resistance<\/a> was limited. The most notable exception was the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto_uprising\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto uprising\">Warsaw Ghetto uprising<\/a> of 1943, when thousands of poorly-armed Jewish fighters held the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Waffen-SS\" title=\"Waffen-SS\">Waffen-SS<\/a> at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20,000\u201330,000 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_partisans\" title=\"Jewish partisans\">Jewish partisans<\/a> actively fought against the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe. <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Jews\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"French Jews\">French Jews<\/a> took part in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Resistance\" title=\"French Resistance\">French Resistance<\/a>, which conducted a guerilla campaign against both the Nazis and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Vichy_France\" title=\"Vichy France\">Vichy French authorities<\/a>. Over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings took place.<\/p>\n<div class=\"toclimit-3\">\n<div id=\"toc\" class=\"toc\">\n<div class=\"toctitle\">\n<h2>Contents<\/h2>\n<\/div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a href=\"#Etymology_and_definition\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Etymology and definition<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-2\"><a href=\"#Etymology_and_alternate_names\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Etymology and alternate names<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-3\"><a href=\"#Definition\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Definition<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a href=\"#Distinctive_features\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Distinctive features<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-5\"><a href=\"#Genocidal_state\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Genocidal state<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-6\"><a href=\"#Ideology_and_scale\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Ideology and scale<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-7\"><a href=\"#Industrialized_murder\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Industrialized murder<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-8\"><a href=\"#Origins\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Origins<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-9\"><a href=\"#Antisemitism_and_racism\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Antisemitism and racism<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-10\"><a href=\"#Germany_after_World_War_I\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Germany after World War I<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-11\"><a href=\"#Hitler.27s_world_view\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Hitler's world view<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-12\"><a href=\"#Nazi_Germany\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Nazi Germany<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-13\"><a href=\"#Dictatorship_and_repression_.281933.E2.80.931939.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Dictatorship and repression (1933\u20131939)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-14\"><a href=\"#Nuremberg_Laws\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Nuremberg Laws<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-15\"><a href=\"#Emigration\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Emigration<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-16\"><a href=\"#Kristallnacht_and_afterwards\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4.4<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Kristallnacht and afterwards<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-17\"><a href=\"#Territorial_solution_and_resettlement\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4.5<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Territorial solution and resettlement<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-18\"><a href=\"#World_War_II\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">World War II<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-19\"><a href=\"#German-occupied_Poland\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">German-occupied Poland<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-20\"><a href=\"#Lublin_reservation_.28Nisko_plan.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.1.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Lublin reservation (Nisko plan)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-21\"><a href=\"#Other_occupied_countries\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Other occupied countries<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-22\"><a href=\"#Germany.27s_allies\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Germany's allies<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-23\"><a href=\"#Concentration_and_labor_camps_.281933.E2.80.931945.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.4<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Concentration and labor camps (1933\u20131945)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-24\"><a href=\"#Ghettos_.281939.E2.80.931945.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.5<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Ghettos (1939\u20131945)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-25\"><a href=\"#Pogroms_.281939.E2.80.931942.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.6<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Pogroms (1939\u20131942)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-26\"><a href=\"#Death_squads_.281941.E2.80.931943.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.7<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Death squads (1941\u20131943)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-27\"><a href=\"#Gas_vans\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5.8<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Gas vans<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-28\"><a href=\"#Final_Solution\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Final Solution<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-29\"><a href=\"#Wannsee_Conference\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Wannsee Conference<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-30\"><a href=\"#Extermination_camps\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Extermination camps<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-31\"><a href=\"#Gas_chambers\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.2.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Gas chambers<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-32\"><a href=\"#Jewish_resistance\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Jewish resistance<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-33\"><a href=\"#Armed_resistance\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.3.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Armed resistance<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-34\"><a href=\"#Partisan_and_resistance_groups\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.3.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Partisan and resistance groups<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-35\"><a href=\"#Jews_in_the_Allied_forces\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.3.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Jews in the Allied forces<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-36\"><a href=\"#Medical_experimentation\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.4<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Medical experimentation<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-37\"><a href=\"#Climax\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.5<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Climax<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-38\"><a href=\"#Escapes_and_early_Allied_responses\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.6<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Escapes and early Allied responses<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-39\"><a href=\"#Death_marches_.281944.E2.80.931945.29\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.7<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Death marches (1944\u20131945)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-40\"><a href=\"#Liberation\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6.8<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Liberation<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-41\"><a href=\"#Responses_to_the_Holocaust\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Responses to the Holocaust<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-42\"><a href=\"#Perpetrator.27s_motivations\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Perpetrator's motivations<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-43\"><a href=\"#German_public\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">German public<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-44\"><a href=\"#Victims_enumerated\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Victims enumerated<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-45\"><a href=\"#Jewish_death_toll\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Jewish death toll<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-46\"><a href=\"#Death_camps\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.1.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Death camps<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-47\"><a href=\"#Other_Jewish_deaths\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.1.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Other Jewish deaths<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-48\"><a href=\"#By_country\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.1.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">By country<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-49\"><a href=\"#Non-Jewish\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Non-Jewish<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-50\"><a href=\"#Slavs\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Slavs<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-4 tocsection-51\"><a href=\"#Ethnic_Poles\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.1.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Ethnic Poles<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-4 tocsection-52\"><a href=\"#Other_West_Slavs\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.1.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Other West Slavs<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-4 tocsection-53\"><a href=\"#Ethnic_Serbs_and_other_South_Slavs\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.1.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Ethnic Serbs and other South Slavs<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-4 tocsection-54\"><a href=\"#East_Slavs\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.1.4<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">East Slavs<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-4 tocsection-55\"><a href=\"#Soviet_POWs\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.1.5<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Soviet POWs<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-56\"><a href=\"#Romani_people\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Romani people<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-57\"><a href=\"#Persons_of_color\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.2.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Persons of color<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-58\"><a href=\"#Others\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Others<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-59\"><a href=\"#Disabled_and_mentally_ill\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.3.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Disabled and mentally ill<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-60\"><a href=\"#Homosexuals\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.3.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Homosexuals<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-61\"><a href=\"#Political_opponents\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.3.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Political opponents<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-3 tocsection-62\"><a href=\"#Jehovah.27s_Witnesses\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8.3.4<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-63\"><a href=\"#Uniqueness_question\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">9<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Uniqueness question<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-64\"><a href=\"#Aftermath\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">10<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Aftermath<\/span><\/a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-65\"><a href=\"#Trials\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">10.1<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Trials<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-66\"><a href=\"#Effect_on_languages\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">10.2<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Effect on languages<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-67\"><a href=\"#Reparations\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">10.3<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Reparations<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-68\"><a href=\"#See_also\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">11<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">See also<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-69\"><a href=\"#Notes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">12<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Notes<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-70\"><a href=\"#Citations\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">13<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Citations<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-71\"><a href=\"#References\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">14<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">References<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-72\"><a href=\"#Further_reading\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">15<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">Further reading<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-73\"><a href=\"#External_links\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">16<\/span> <span class=\"toctext\">External links<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Etymology_and_definition\">Etymology and definition<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Names_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Names of the Holocaust\">Names of the Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Etymology_and_alternate_names\">Etymology and alternate names<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>The term <i>holocaust<\/i> comes from the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Greek_language\" title=\"Greek language\">Greek<\/a> word <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_(sacrifice)\" title=\"Holocaust (sacrifice)\">hol\u00f3kaustos<\/a><\/i> which refers to an <a href=\"\/wiki\/Animal_sacrifice\" title=\"Animal sacrifice\">animal sacrifice<\/a> that is offered to a god in which the whole animal is completely burnt.<sup id=\"cite_ref-8\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-8\">[5]<\/a><\/sup> Later it came to denote a massacre or slaughter of large numbers of people.<sup id=\"cite_ref-9\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-9\">[6]<\/a><\/sup> The word <i>shoah<\/i> (\u05e9\u05d5\u05d0\u05d4; also transliterated <i>sho'ah<\/i> and <i>shoa<\/i>), meaning \"calamity\" became the standard <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hebrew_language\" title=\"Hebrew language\">Hebrew<\/a> term for the Holocaust as early as the 1940s.<sup id=\"cite_ref-YVDefinition_10-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-YVDefinition-10\">[7]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>\"Holocaust\" was used in the 1950s by historians as a translation of the Jewish word <i>shoah<\/i> to refer specifically to the Nazi genocide of the Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045-11\">[8]<\/a><\/sup> The television mini-series <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_(TV_miniseries)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Holocaust (TV miniseries)\"><i>Holocaust<\/i><\/a> is credited with making the term the usual one for the Jewish genocide in the United States.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201_12-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201-12\">[9]<\/a><\/sup> As the definition of the victims of the Holocaust has expanded to include more than just Jews, <i>shoah<\/i> continues to retain its meaning as specifically the genocide of the Jews under the Nazis.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_13-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115-13\">[10]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-15\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-15\">[d]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The Nazis used the phrase \"Final Solution to the Jewish Question\" or \"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a>\" to refer to their genocide of the Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix_16-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix-16\">[12]<\/a><\/sup> Historian Peter Longerich writes that the term \"final solution\" and similar euphemisms, were used by the Germans \"as camouflage for mass murder\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-Longerich_17-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Longerich-17\">[13]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Definition\">Definition<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>The restrictive definition of the Holocaust is that it was a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">genocide<\/a> of Jews by the Nazis.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-413_18-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-413-18\">[14]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer200210.E2.80.9311_19-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer200210.E2.80.9311-19\">[15]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-26\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-26\">[e]<\/a><\/sup> A broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_murder\" title=\"Mass murder\">mass murder<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614_7-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614-7\">[4]<\/a><\/sup> <i>The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust<\/i> limits the definition of the Holocaust to Jews, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Romani<\/a>, and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">Aktion T4<\/a> patients who were mentally and physically disabled. Its authors write \"all three groups, but only these groups, were equal victims of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism_and_race\" title=\"Nazism and race\">Nazi racism<\/a> and genocide.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045.2C_51.E2.80.9352_27-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045.2C_51.E2.80.9352-27\">[22]<\/a><\/sup> They also offer three additional definitions which include the viewpoints of historians who identify several additional victim groups. One is that the Holocaust only applied to Jews, a second is that there were several different Holocausts, each affecting a separate group, and a third would include all German racially-motivated crimes.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200051.E2.80.9352_28-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200051.E2.80.9352-28\">[23]<\/a><\/sup> Timothy Snyder wrote: \"The term Holocaust is sometimes used in two other ways: to mean all German killing policies during the war, or to mean all oppression of Jews by the Nazi regime.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412_29-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-29\">[24]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Broader definitions of so-called \"parallel Holocausts\" include the Soviet POWs who died as a result of mistreatment due to Nazi racial policies,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048.E2.80.9349_30-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048.E2.80.9349-30\">[25]<\/a><\/sup> the non-Jewish ethnic Poles who died due to the conditions that resulted from the Nazi occupation of Poland, the Soviet citizens who died from similar conditions in occupied parts of the Soviet Union,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200049.E2.80.9350_31-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200049.E2.80.9350-31\">[26]<\/a><\/sup> mentally and physically disabled people who were killed in Nazi Germany's eugenics program,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-32\">[27]<\/a><\/sup> the Gypsies, or the Romani and Sinti,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9348_33-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9348-33\">[28]<\/a><\/sup> homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and other religious dissenters.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200050.E2.80.9351_34-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200050.E2.80.9351-34\">[29]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Distinctive_features\">Distinctive features<\/span><\/h2>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:332px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e9\/WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png\/330px-WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png\" width=\"330\" height=\"275\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e9\/WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png\/495px-WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e9\/WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png\/660px-WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"1310\" data-file-height=\"1090\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\n<a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_German-occupied_Europe_(1939%E2%80%931944)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939\u20131944)\">Ghettos<\/a> were established in which Jews were confined before being shipped to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">extermination camps<\/a>.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Genocidal_state\">Genocidal state<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>The entirety of German society were engaged in activities relating to the genocide, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Michael Berenbaum<\/a>, has called \"a genocidal state\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103_35-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103-35\">[30]<\/a><\/sup> Bureaucrats were involved with finding records to identify who was a Jew, the confiscation of property, and the scheduling of trains that deported Jews. Companies fired Jewish employees, and later employed Jews as slave labour. Universities dismissed Jewish students and faculty. German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Crematoria\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Crematoria\">crematoria<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103_35-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103-35\">[30]<\/a><\/sup> As prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987154.E2.80.93159_36-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987154.E2.80.93159-36\">[31]<\/a><\/sup> Through a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Max_Heiliger\" title=\"Max Heiliger\">concealed account<\/a>, the German National Bank helped <a href=\"\/wiki\/Money_laundering\" title=\"Money laundering\">launder valuables<\/a> stolen from the victims.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel167_37-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel167-37\">[32]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Saul_Friedl%C3%A4nder\" title=\"Saul Friedl\u00e4nder\">Saul Friedl\u00e4nder<\/a> writes that: \"Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi_38-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi-38\">[33]<\/a><\/sup> He writes that some Christian churches \"declared that converted Jews should be regarded as part of the flock, but even then only up to a point\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi_38-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi-38\">[33]<\/a><\/sup> Friedl\u00e4nder argues that this makes the Holocaust distinctive because <a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitic\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Antisemitic\">antisemitic<\/a> policies were able to \"unfold to their most extreme levels without the interference of any major countervailing interests\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi_38-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi-38\">[33]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Ideology_and_scale\">Ideology and scale<\/span><\/h3>\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%\">\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em\">Part of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Antisemitism\" title=\"Category:Antisemitism\">a series<\/a> on<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;padding-top:0;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em;font-size:200%;font-weight:normal;padding-bottom:0.15em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism\" title=\"Antisemitism\">Antisemitism<\/a><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0.2em 0 0.4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yellow_badge\" title=\"Yellow badge\"><img alt=\"Yellowbadge logo.svg\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/53\/Yellowbadge_logo.svg\/100px-Yellowbadge_logo.svg.png\" width=\"100\" height=\"115\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/53\/Yellowbadge_logo.svg\/150px-Yellowbadge_logo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/53\/Yellowbadge_logo.svg\/200px-Yellowbadge_logo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"436\" data-file-height=\"503\" \/><\/a>\n<div style=\"padding-top:0.2em;line-height:1.2em\">Part of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_history\" title=\"Jewish history\">Jewish history<\/a><\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0.3em 0.4em 0.3em;font-weight:bold;border-top: 1px solid #aaa; border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;\">\n<div class=\"hlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_antisemitism\" title=\"History of antisemitism\">History of antisemitism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_antisemitism\" title=\"Timeline of antisemitism\">Timeline<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_(authors)\" title=\"Antisemitism (authors)\">Reference<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;border-top:none;\">Manifestations<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center\">\n<div class=\"hlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Universities_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Universities and antisemitism\">Academic<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_Arab_world\" title=\"Antisemitism in the Arab world\">Arab<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Christianity_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Christianity and antisemitism\">Christian<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Economic_antisemitism\" title=\"Economic antisemitism\">Economic<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitic_incidents_during_the_Gaza_War_(2008%E2%80%9309)\" title=\"Antisemitic incidents during the Gaza War (2008\u201309)\">Gaza War<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Islam_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Islam and antisemitism\">Islamic<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_denial\" title=\"Holocaust denial\">Holocaust denial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nation_of_Islam_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Nation of Islam and antisemitism\">Nation of Islam<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism\" title=\"Nazism\">Nazi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/New_antisemitism\" title=\"New antisemitism\">New<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_antisemitism\" title=\"Racial antisemitism\">Racial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Religious_antisemitism\" title=\"Religious antisemitism\">Religious<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Secondary_antisemitism\" title=\"Secondary antisemitism\">Secondary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Antisemitism in the Soviet Union\">Soviet<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stalin_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Stalin and antisemitism\">Stalinist<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Geography_of_antisemitism\" title=\"Geography of antisemitism\">Worldwide<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitic_canard\" title=\"Antisemitic canard\">Antisemitic canards<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center\">\n<div class=\"hlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Blood_libel\" title=\"Blood libel\">Blood libel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_deicide\" title=\"Jewish deicide\">Deicide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dreyfus_affair\" title=\"Dreyfus affair\">Dreyfus affair<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Host_desecration\" title=\"Host desecration\">Host desecration<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Bolshevism\" title=\"Jewish Bolshevism\">Judeo-Bolshevism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_lobby\" title=\"Jewish lobby\">Jewish lobby<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Judeo-Masonic_conspiracy_theory\" title=\"Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory\">Judeo-Masonism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kosher_tax_(antisemitic_canard)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Kosher tax (antisemitic canard)\">Kosher tax<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rootless_cosmopolitan\" title=\"Rootless cosmopolitan\">Rootless cosmopolitan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stab-in-the-back_myth\" title=\"Stab-in-the-back myth\">Stab-in-the-back myth<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Well_poisoning\" title=\"Well poisoning\">Well poisoning<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zionist_Occupation_Government_conspiracy_theory\" title=\"Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory\">Z.O.G. conspiracy<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Antisemitic_publications\" title=\"Category:Antisemitic publications\">Antisemitic publications<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;font-style:italic;\">\n<div class=\"plainlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/On_the_Jews_and_Their_Lies\" title=\"On the Jews and Their Lies\">On the Jews and Their Lies<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/La_France_juive\" title=\"La France juive\">La France juive<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion\" title=\"The Protocols of the Elders of Zion\">Protocols of the Elders of Zion<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_International_Jew\" title=\"The International Jew\">The International Jew<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mein_Kampf\" title=\"Mein Kampf\">Mein Kampf<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zweites_Buch\" title=\"Zweites Buch\">Zweites Buch<\/a><\/li>\n<li>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Secret_Relationship_Between_Blacks_and_Jews\" title=\"The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews\">The Secret Relationship<br \/>\nBetween Blacks and Jews<\/a><\/div>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Turner_Diaries\" title=\"The Turner Diaries\">The Turner Diaries<\/a><\/li>\n<li>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em; line-height:1.1em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hunter_(Pierce_novel)\" title=\"Hunter (Pierce novel)\">Hunter<br \/>\n<span style=\"font-style:normal;\"><span style=\"font-size:80%;\">(William Luther Pierce)<\/span><\/span><\/a><\/div>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Culture_of_Critique\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Culture of Critique\">Culture of Critique<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left\">Antisemitism on the Web<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center\">\n<div class=\"hlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jew_Watch\" title=\"Jew Watch\">Jew Watch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stormfront_(website)\" title=\"Stormfront (website)\">Stormfront<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Triple_parentheses\" title=\"Triple parentheses\">Triple parentheses<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jews\" title=\"Persecution of Jews\">Persecution<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center\">\n<div class=\"hlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitic_boycotts\" title=\"Antisemitic boycotts\">Boycotts<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_refugees\" title=\"Jewish refugees\">Expulsions<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_ghettos_in_Europe\" title=\"Jewish ghettos in Europe\">Ghettos in Europe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_hat\" title=\"Jewish hat\">Jewish hat<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Judensau\" title=\"Judensau\">Judensau<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_quota\" title=\"Jewish quota\">Jewish quota<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom\" title=\"Pogrom\">Pogroms<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Religious_segregation\" title=\"Religious segregation\">Segregation<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Spanish_Inquisition\" title=\"Spanish Inquisition\">Spanish Inquisition<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yellow_badge\" title=\"Yellow badge\">Yellow badge<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em\">\n<div class=\"NavFrame collapsed\" style=\"border:none;padding:0\">\n<div class=\"NavHead\" style=\"font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left\">Opposition<\/div>\n<div class=\"NavContent\" style=\"font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center\">\n<div class=\"plainlist\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/UN_Watch\" title=\"UN Watch\">UN Watch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Defamation_League\" title=\"Anti-Defamation League\">Anti-Defamation League<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Community_Security_Trust\" title=\"Community Security Trust\">Community Security Trust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fundamental_Rights_Agency\" title=\"Fundamental Rights Agency\">Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Philo-Semitism\" title=\"Philo-Semitism\">Philo-Semitism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stephen_Roth_Institute\" title=\"Stephen Roth Institute\">Stephen Roth Institute<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wiener_Library\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Wiener Library\">Wiener Library<\/a><\/li>\n<li>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Southern_Poverty_Law_Center\" title=\"Southern Poverty Law Center\">Southern Poverty Law<br \/>\nCenter (SPLC)<\/a><\/div>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Simon_Wiesenthal_Center\" title=\"Simon Wiesenthal Center\">Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC)<\/a><\/li>\n<li>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Union_of_Councils_for_Soviet_Jews\" title=\"Union of Councils for Soviet Jews\">Union of Councils for<br \/>\nSoviet Jews (UCSJ)<\/a><\/div>\n<\/li>\n<li>\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Swedish_Committee_Against_Antisemitism\" title=\"Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism\">Swedish Committee Against<br \/>\nAntisemitism (SCAA)<\/a><\/div>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zionism\" title=\"Zionism\">Zionism<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0.3em 0.4em 0.3em;font-weight:bold;border-top: 1px solid #aaa; border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.15em;\"><img alt=\"Category\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/48\/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg\/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png\" title=\"Category\" width=\"16\" height=\"14\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/48\/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg\/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/48\/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg\/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"36\" data-file-height=\"31\" \/> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Antisemitism\" title=\"Category:Antisemitism\">Category<\/a><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Antisemitism\" title=\"Template:Antisemitism\"><abbr title=\"View this template\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Antisemitism\" title=\"Template talk:Antisemitism\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Antisemitism&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<p>Historian <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yehuda_Bauer\" title=\"Yehuda Bauer\">Yehuda Bauer<\/a> argues that the Holocaust was based on ideology and myths rather than practical considerations.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer200248_39-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer200248-39\">[34]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Eberhard_J%C3%A4ckel\" title=\"Eberhard J\u00e4ckel\">Eberhard J\u00e4ckel<\/a> argues that one distinctive feature of the Holocaust was that it was the first time that a state put the full power behind its declaration that a whole people would be completely wiped out without exception and as quickly as possible.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMaier198853_40-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMaier198853-40\">[35]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupied_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Occupied Europe\">German-occupied territory<\/a> in more than 20 occupied countries.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum19967_41-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum19967-41\">[36]<\/a><\/sup> Close to 3 million Jews in occupied Poland and between 700,000 and 2.5 million Jews in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_Union\" title=\"Soviet Union\">Soviet Union<\/a> were killed. Hundreds of thousands more Jews also died in the rest of German-occupied Europe.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447_42-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447-42\">[37]<\/a><\/sup> Discussions at the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wannsee_Conference\" title=\"Wannsee Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/a> make it clear that the Nazi \"final solution of the Jewish question\" included <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_Kingdom\" title=\"United Kingdom\">Britain<\/a> and all the neutral states in Europe, such as <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ireland\" title=\"Ireland\">Ireland<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Switzerland\" title=\"Switzerland\">Switzerland<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Turkey\" title=\"Turkey\">Turkey<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sweden\" title=\"Sweden\">Sweden<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Portugal\" title=\"Portugal\">Portugal<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Spain\" title=\"Spain\">Spain<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001289_43-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001289-43\">[38]<\/a><\/sup> Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone2011109_44-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone2011109-44\">[39]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Industrialized_murder\">Industrialized murder<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination camp<\/a><\/div>\n<p>The use of extermination camps, or death camps, equipped with gas chambers for the systematic mass extermination of people was an unprecedented feature of the Holocaust. They were built for the systematic purpose of killing millions of people, primarily by <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_gas_chamber\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi gas chamber\">gassing<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellatelyStoltzfus2001216_45-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellatelyStoltzfus2001216-45\">[40]<\/a><\/sup> Stationary facilities built for the purpose of mass extermination resulted from earlier Nazi experimentation with poison gas during the secret <a href=\"\/wiki\/Action_T4\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Action T4\">Action T4<\/a> euthanasia programme against mental patients.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Gassing_46-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Gassing-46\">[41]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Origins\">Origins<\/span><\/h2>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Antisemitism_and_racism\">Antisemitism and racism<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">See also: <a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Germany\" title=\"History of the Jews in Germany\">History of the Jews in Germany<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism\" title=\"Antisemitism\">Antisemitism<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Christianity_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Christianity and antisemitism\">Christianity and antisemitism<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Luther_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Martin Luther and antisemitism\">Martin Luther and antisemitism<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Religious_antisemitism\" title=\"Religious antisemitism\">Religious antisemitism<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_antisemitism\" title=\"Racial antisemitism\">Racial antisemitism<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_boycott_of_Jewish_businesses\" title=\"Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses\">Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Throughout the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Middle_Ages\" title=\"Middle Ages\">Middle Ages<\/a> in Europe, Jews were subjected to antisemitism based on Christian theology, which blamed them for rejecting and killing <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jesus\" title=\"Jesus\">Jesus<\/a>. Even after the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reformation\" title=\"Reformation\">Reformation<\/a>, Catholicism and Lutheranism continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Blood_libel\" title=\"Blood libel\">blood libel<\/a> and subjecting them to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogroms\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Pogroms\">pogroms<\/a> and expulsions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006148_47-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006148-47\">[42]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen20094.E2.80.936_48-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen20094.E2.80.936-48\">[43]<\/a><\/sup> The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_empire\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"German empire\">Germany<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Austria-Hungary\" title=\"Austria-Hungary\">Austria-Hungary<\/a> of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/V%C3%B6lkisch_movement\" title=\"V\u00f6lkisch movement\"><i>V\u00f6lkisch<\/i> movement<\/a> which was developed by such thinkers as <a href=\"\/wiki\/Houston_Stewart_Chamberlain\" title=\"Houston Stewart Chamberlain\">Houston Stewart Chamberlain<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Paul_de_Lagarde\" title=\"Paul de Lagarde\">Paul de Lagarde<\/a>. The movement presented a pseudo-scientific, biologically based form of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism\" title=\"Racism\">racism<\/a> that viewed Jews as a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Race_(human_categorization)\" title=\"Race (human categorization)\">race<\/a> whose members were locked in mortal combat with the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Aryan_race\" title=\"Aryan race\">Aryan race<\/a> for world domination.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9349_49-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9349-49\">[44]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:262px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469,_Berlin,_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/92\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg\/260px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg\" width=\"260\" height=\"169\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/92\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg\/390px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/92\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg\/520px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"800\" data-file-height=\"520\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469,_Berlin,_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nAntisemitism in Germany: on 1 April 1933 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sturmabteilung\" title=\"Sturmabteilung\">SA<\/a> troopers urge a national boycott of Jewish businesses. Here they are outside <a href=\"\/wiki\/Israel%27s_Department_Store\" title=\"Israel's Department Store\">Israel's Department Store<\/a> in Berlin. The signs read: \"Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews.\" (\"<i>Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden!<\/i>\")<sup id=\"cite_ref-50\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-50\">[45]<\/a><\/sup> The store was later ransacked during <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kristallnacht\" title=\"Kristallnacht\">Kristallnacht<\/a> in 1938, then handed over to a non-Jewish family.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>In the German Empire, <i>v\u00f6lkisch<\/i> notions and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Scientific_racism\" title=\"Scientific racism\">pseudo-scientific<\/a> racism had become commonplace and they were accepted throughout Germany,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198969_51-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198969-51\">[46]<\/a><\/sup> with the professional classes of the country adopting an ideology that did not see humans as equally racially and hereditarily valuable.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedlander1994495.E2.80.93496_52-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedlander1994495.E2.80.93496-52\">[47]<\/a><\/sup> Though the <i>v\u00f6lkisch<\/i> parties were defeated in the 1912 <i>Reichstag<\/i> elections, being all but wiped out, antisemitism was incorporated into the platforms of the mainstream political parties.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198969_51-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198969-51\">[46]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Germany_after_World_War_I\">Germany after World War I<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>The political situation in Germany and elsewhere in Europe after World War I (1914\u20131918) also contributed to virulent antisemitism. Many Germans did not accept the fact that their country had been defeated in battle, giving rise to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Stab-in-the-back_myth\" title=\"Stab-in-the-back myth\">Stab-in-the-back myth<\/a>. The myth insinuated that it was disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and Communists, who orchestrated Germany's surrender. Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment espoused by the myth was the apparent overrepresentation of ethnic Jews in the leadership of Communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Toller\" title=\"Ernst Toller\">Ernst Toller<\/a>, who was the head of a short-lived revolutionary government in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bavaria\" title=\"Bavaria\">Bavaria<\/a>. This perceived overrepresentation contributed to the canard of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Bolshevism\" title=\"Jewish Bolshevism\">Jewish Bolshevism<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-53\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-53\">[48]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The economic strains of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Great_Depression\" title=\"Great Depression\">Great Depression<\/a> led some in the German medical establishment to advocate the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Euthanasia\" title=\"Euthanasia\">euthanization<\/a> of the \"incurable\" mentally and physically disabled as a cost-saving measure in order to free up money to care for the curable.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2004377.E2.80.93378_54-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2004377.E2.80.93378-54\">[49]<\/a><\/sup> By the time the Nazis came to power in 1933, a tendency already existed in the German social policy to save the racially \"valuable\" while seeking to rid society of the racially \"undesirable\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPeukert1994289_55-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPeukert1994289-55\">[50]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The <a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_German_Workers%27_Party\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"National Socialist German Workers' Party\">National Socialist German Workers' Party<\/a>, or Nazi Party, was founded in 1920 as an offshoot of the <i>v\u00f6lkisch<\/i> movement and it adopted that movement's form of antisemitism.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9351_56-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9351-56\">[51]<\/a><\/sup> Early antisemites in the Nazi Party included <a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Rosenberg\" title=\"Alfred Rosenberg\">Alfred Rosenberg<\/a>, who in the 1920s wrote antisemitic articles in the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/V%C3%B6lkischer_Beobachter\" title=\"V\u00f6lkischer Beobachter\">V\u00f6lkischer Beobachter<\/a><\/i>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Dietrich_Eckart\" title=\"Dietrich Eckart\">Dietrich Eckart<\/a>, publisher of the <i>V\u00f6lkischer Beobachter<\/i>. Rosenberg's vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler's views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil199041.E2.80.9343_57-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil199041.E2.80.9343-57\">[52]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Hitler.27s_world_view\">Hitler's world view<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>The origin and first expression of Hitler's antisemitism remain a matter of debate.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKershaw199860_58-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKershaw199860-58\">[53]<\/a><\/sup> Central to Hitler's philosophy was the idea of expansion and <i>lebensraum<\/i> (living space) for Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200936_59-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200936-59\">[54]<\/a><\/sup> Hitler was open about his hatred of Jews and subscribed to most of the common antisemitic stereotypes.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200937.E2.80.9338_60-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200937.E2.80.9338-60\">[55]<\/a><\/sup> From the early 1920s Hitler linked the Jews with germs and claimed that they should be dealt with in exactly the same way.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200938_61-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200938-61\">[56]<\/a><\/sup> Hitler viewed <a href=\"\/wiki\/Marxism\" title=\"Marxism\">Marxism<\/a> as a Jewish doctrine and proclaimed he was fighting against \"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Bolshevism\" title=\"Jewish Bolshevism\">Jewish Marxism<\/a>\". He believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200939_62-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200939-62\">[57]<\/a><\/sup> The journalist Joseph Hell in the 1920s claimed that in response to being asked what he would do to the Jews when he gained power, Hitler said that his \"first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming199417_63-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming199417-63\">[58]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Nazi_Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/span><\/h2>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Dictatorship_and_repression_.281933.E2.80.931939.29\">Dictatorship and repression (1933\u20131939)<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Jewish_legislation_in_prewar_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany\">Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Racial policy of Nazi Germany\">Racial policy of Nazi Germany<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_Laws\" title=\"Nuremberg Laws\">Nuremberg Laws<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Haavara_Agreement\" title=\"Haavara Agreement\">Haavara Agreement<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jews_escaping_from_Nazi_Europe_to_Britain\" title=\"Jews escaping from Nazi Europe to Britain\">Jews escaping from Nazi Europe to Britain<\/a><\/div>\n<p>With the establishment of the Third Reich, Nazi leaders proclaimed the existence of a <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Volksgemeinschaft\" title=\"Volksgemeinschaft\">Volksgemeinschaft<\/a><\/i> (\"people's community\"). Nazi policies divided the population into two categories, the <i>Volksgenossen<\/i> (\"national comrades\"), who belonged to the <i>Volksgemeinschaft<\/i>, and the <i>Gemeinschaftsfremde<\/i> (\"community aliens\"), who did not. Nazi policies divided people into three types of enemies, the \"racial\" enemies such as the Jews and the Romani who were viewed as enemies because of their \"blood\"; political opponents such as Marxists, liberals, Christians and the \"reactionaries\" who were viewed as wayward \"national comrades\"; and moral opponents such as homosexuals, the \"work-shy\" and habitual criminals, also seen as wayward \"national comrades\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_64-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499-64\">[59]<\/a><\/sup> The last two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for \"re-education\", with the aim of eventual absorption into the <i>Volksgemeinschaft<\/i>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_64-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499-64\">[59]<\/a><\/sup> \"Racial\" enemies such as the Jews could never belong to the <i>Volksgemeinschaft<\/i>; they were to be totally removed from society.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_64-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499-64\">[59]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:262px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/10\/Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg\/260px-Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg\" width=\"260\" height=\"205\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/10\/Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg\/390px-Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/10\/Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg\/520px-Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"1306\" data-file-height=\"1031\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nJewish refugees being marched away by British police at <a href=\"\/wiki\/Croydon_airport\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Croydon airport\">Croydon airport<\/a> in March 1939. They were put on a flight to Warsaw.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Leading up to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_federal_election,_March_1933\" title=\"German federal election, March 1933\">March 1933 <i>Reichstag<\/i> elections<\/a> and after it, the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against their opponents.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201528.E2.80.9330_65-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201528.E2.80.9330-65\">[60]<\/a><\/sup> They set up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment of their opponents.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201532.E2.80.9338_66-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201532.E2.80.9338-66\">[61]<\/a><\/sup> One of the first, at <a href=\"\/wiki\/Dachau_concentration_camp\" title=\"Dachau concentration camp\">Dachau<\/a>, opened on 9 March 1933.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198532_67-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198532-67\">[62]<\/a><\/sup> Initially the camp primarily contained Communists and Social Democrats.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012155_68-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012155-68\">[63]<\/a><\/sup> Other early prisons were consolidated by mid-1934 into purpose-built camps outside the cities, run exclusively by the SS.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201584.E2.80.9386_69-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201584.E2.80.9386-69\">[64]<\/a><\/sup> The initial purpose of the camps was to serve as a deterrent by terrorizing those Germans who did not conform to social norms.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPeukert1987214_70-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPeukert1987214-70\">[65]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733_71-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733-71\">[66]<\/a><\/sup> On 1 April 1933, a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_boycott_of_Jewish_businesses\" title=\"Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses\">boycott of Jewish businesses<\/a> occurred.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2004434.E2.80.93435_72-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2004434.E2.80.93435-72\">[67]<\/a><\/sup> On 7 April 1933, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Law_for_the_Restoration_of_the_Professional_Civil_Service\" title=\"Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service\">Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service<\/a> was passed which excluded all Jews and other \"non-Aryans\" from the civil service.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178_73-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178-73\">[68]<\/a><\/sup> Jewish lawyers were <a href=\"\/wiki\/Disbarment\" title=\"Disbarment\">disbarred<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199729_74-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199729-74\">[69]<\/a><\/sup> Jewish students were restricted by quotas from attending schools and universities,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178_73-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178-73\">[68]<\/a><\/sup> from belonging to the Journalists' Association, and from being owners or editors of newspapers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733_71-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733-71\">[66]<\/a><\/sup> Jewish businesses were also targeted for either closing or \"Aryanisation\", the forcible sale to Germans. Of the approximately 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses in Germany in 1933, only about 7,000 were still Jewish-owned in April 1939. Accompanying the removal of Jews from the economic life, they were also gradually restricted from most social activities and public areas.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199186.E2.80.9387_75-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199186.E2.80.9387-75\">[70]<\/a><\/sup> Works by Jewish composers,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997134_76-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997134-76\">[71]<\/a><\/sup> Jewish authors,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005158.E2.80.93159_77-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005158.E2.80.93159-77\">[72]<\/a><\/sup> and Jewish artists were excluded from publication, performances, or exhibitions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005169_78-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005169-78\">[73]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Nuremberg_Laws\">Nuremberg Laws<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>In September 1935, Hitler introduced the three <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_Laws\" title=\"Nuremberg Laws\">Nuremberg Laws<\/a>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005543.E2.80.93544_79-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005543.E2.80.93544-79\">[74]<\/a><\/sup> which prohibited Germans or those of \"kindred blood\",<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005550_80-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005550-80\">[75]<\/a><\/sup> from having sexual relations or marrying Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001122.E2.80.93123_81-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001122.E2.80.93123-81\">[76]<\/a><\/sup> The laws also stripped German Jews of their citizenship and deprived them of all <a href=\"\/wiki\/Civil_rights\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Civil rights\">civil rights<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005544-545_82-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005544-545-82\">[77]<\/a><\/sup> At the same time the Nazis used propaganda to justify the need for a restrictive law,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005539_83-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005539-83\">[78]<\/a><\/sup> grouping these \"crimes\" under the concept of <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rassenschande\" title=\"Rassenschande\">Rassenschande<\/a><\/i> (racial shame).<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005551_84-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005551-84\">[79]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Emigration\">Emigration<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>Nazi racial policy was aimed at forcing the German Jews to emigrate.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_85-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285-85\">[80]<\/a><\/sup> Fifty thousand German Jews left Germany by the end of 1934,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199820_86-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199820-86\">[81]<\/a><\/sup> and by the end of 1938 approximately half of the German Jews had left the country.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_85-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285-85\">[80]<\/a><\/sup> Among the prominent Jews who left was the conductor <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bruno_Walter\" title=\"Bruno Walter\">Bruno Walter<\/a>, who fled after being told that the hall of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Berlin_Philharmonic\" title=\"Berlin Philharmonic\">Berlin Philharmonic<\/a> would be burned down if he conducted a concert there.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder19971_87-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder19971-87\">[82]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Albert_Einstein\" title=\"Albert Einstein\">Albert Einstein<\/a>, who was abroad when Hitler came to power, never returned to Germany. He was expelled from the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaiser_Wilhelm_Society\" title=\"Kaiser Wilhelm Society\">Kaiser Wilhelm Society<\/a> and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Prussian_Academy_of_Sciences\" title=\"Prussian Academy of Sciences\">Prussian Academy of Sciences<\/a>, and his citizenship was revoked.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199712_88-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199712-88\">[83]<\/a><\/sup> Other Jewish scientists, including <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gustav_Hertz\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Gustav Hertz\">Gustav Hertz<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Erwin_Schr%C3%B6dinger\" title=\"Erwin Schr\u00f6dinger\">Erwin Schr\u00f6dinger<\/a>, lost their teaching positions and left the country.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200516_89-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200516-89\">[84]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria, which exposed the Jews of Austria to Nazi antisemitism. Austrian Nazis broke into Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016147.E2.80.93150_90-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016147.E2.80.93150-90\">[85]<\/a><\/sup> Jewish businesses were \"Aryanised\" and all the legal restrictions on Jews in Germany were imposed on Austrian Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016153.E2.80.93155_91-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016153.E2.80.93155-91\">[86]<\/a><\/sup> In August, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Eichmann\" title=\"Adolf Eichmann\">Adolf Eichmann<\/a> was put in charge of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Central_Agency_for_Jewish_Emigration_in_Vienna\" title=\"Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna\">Central Agency for Jewish Emigration<\/a>, which centralised the process of emigration and led to about 100,000 Austrian Jews leaving the country by May 1939.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005659.E2.80.93661_92-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005659.E2.80.93661-92\">[87]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Kristallnacht_and_afterwards\">Kristallnacht and afterwards<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kristallnacht\" title=\"Kristallnacht\">Kristallnacht<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/91\/Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg\/220px-Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"151\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/91\/Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg\/330px-Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/91\/Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg\/440px-Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"507\" data-file-height=\"347\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nThe synagogue of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Siegen\" title=\"Siegen\">Siegen<\/a> burning on 10 November 1938.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>On 7 November 1938, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Herschel_Grynszpan\" title=\"Herschel Grynszpan\">Herschel Grynszpan<\/a>, a Polish Jew, assassinated the German diplomat <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_vom_Rath\" title=\"Ernst vom Rath\">Ernst vom Rath<\/a> in Paris in retaliation for the expulsion of his parents from Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005580_93-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005580-93\">[88]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-95\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-95\">[f]<\/a><\/sup> When vom Rath died on 9 November, the Nazis used his death as a pretext to instigate a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom\" title=\"Pogrom\">pogrom<\/a> against the Jews in the Third Reich. Although the Nazis claimed the pogrom was spontaneous, it was actually planned and ordered by Hitler and Goebbels.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005581.E2.80.93582_96-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005581.E2.80.93582-96\">[90]<\/a><\/sup> This event became known as <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kristallnacht\" title=\"Kristallnacht\">Kristallnacht<\/a><\/i> (\"Crystal Night\" or \"Night of Broken Glass\")<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976201_97-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976201-97\">[91]<\/a><\/sup> and it was carried out by the SS and SA.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005583.E2.80.93584_98-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005583.E2.80.93584-98\">[92]<\/a><\/sup> Over 7,500 Jewish shops and more than 1,000 synagogues were either damaged or destroyed. The damage was estimated at 39 million Reichmarks.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184.E2.80.93185_99-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184.E2.80.93185-99\">[93]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The death toll was officially given as 91, but it may have been higher.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016187_100-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016187-100\">[94]<\/a><\/sup> 30,000 men were sent to the concentration camps of Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005591_101-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005591-101\">[95]<\/a><\/sup> but many were released within weeks. Only 2,000 remained in the camps by early 1939.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016200_102-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016200-102\">[96]<\/a><\/sup> German Jewry was made collectively responsible for restitution of the damage resulting from the pogrom, and they furthermore had to pay an \"atonement tax\" of more than a billion Reichsmarks. Insurance payments for damages to their property were confiscated by the government. A decree on 12 November barred Jews from most of the remaining occupations that they had not yet been banned from.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005595.E2.80.93596_103-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005595.E2.80.93596-103\">[97]<\/a><\/sup> After <i>Kristallnacht<\/i>, Jews caught in the Third Reich stepped up their efforts to leave the country. It also marked the end of any sort of public Jewish activity and culture.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBen-RafaelGl.C3.B6cknerSternberg201125.E2.80.9326_104-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBen-RafaelGl.C3.B6cknerSternberg201125.E2.80.9326-104\">[98]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Territorial_solution_and_resettlement\">Territorial solution and resettlement<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:StLouisPorthole.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/74\/StLouisPorthole.jpg\/170px-StLouisPorthole.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"249\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/74\/StLouisPorthole.jpg\/255px-StLouisPorthole.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/74\/StLouisPorthole.jpg\/340px-StLouisPorthole.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"1091\" data-file-height=\"1600\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:StLouisPorthole.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nThe 930 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_refugees\" title=\"Jewish refugees\">Jewish refugees<\/a> aboard the <a href=\"\/wiki\/MS_St._Louis\" title=\"MS St. Louis\">MS <i>St. Louis<\/i><\/a> were refused entry to Cuba, the United States and Canada, and the ship was forced to return to Europe.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Before <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a>, the Nazis considered mass deportation of German, and later European, Jewry from Europe.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1989224-225_105-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1989224-225-105\">[99]<\/a><\/sup> Among the areas considered for possible resettlement were <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mandatory_Palestine\" title=\"Mandatory Palestine\">British Palestine<\/a>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199762.E2.80.9363_106-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199762.E2.80.9363-106\">[100]<\/a><\/sup> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Madagascar\" title=\"French Madagascar\">French Madagascar<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001_107-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001-107\">[101]<\/a><\/sup> After the war began, Nazi leaders considered the idea of deporting Europe's Jews to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Siberia\" title=\"Siberia\">Siberia<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-108\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-108\">[102]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7e\/German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg\/170px-German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"255\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7e\/German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg\/255px-German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7e\/German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg\/340px-German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"1287\" data-file-height=\"1928\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nGerman J stamped passport used to escape Europe in 1940.The holder was interned on the Island of Mauritius from late 1940 up to 1945.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Palestine was the only location to which any Nazi relocation plan produced any results, via the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Haavara_Agreement\" title=\"Haavara Agreement\">Haavara Agreement<\/a> between the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Zionist_Federation_of_Germany\" title=\"Zionist Federation of Germany\">Zionist Federation of Germany<\/a> and the Nazi government.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010264_109-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010264-109\">[103]<\/a><\/sup> This agreement resulted in the transfer of about 60,000 German Jews and $100<span class=\"nowrap\"> <\/span>million from Germany to Palestine, but it ended with the outbreak of World War II.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEChase1999xiii_110-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEChase1999xiii-110\">[104]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In May 1940 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Madagascar\" title=\"Madagascar\">Madagascar<\/a> became the focus of German deportation efforts.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001_107-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001-107\">[101]<\/a><\/sup> In its favour, the island's unfavorable conditions would hasten deaths.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENaimark200173_111-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENaimark200173-111\">[105]<\/a><\/sup> Various Nazis began discussing the idea in 1938 and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Eichmann\" title=\"Adolf Eichmann\">Adolf Eichmann<\/a>'s office was ordered to carry out resettlement planning, but no evidence of actual planning until after the fall of France in June 1940 exists.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning200481.E2.80.9385_112-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning200481.E2.80.9385-112\">[106]<\/a><\/sup> But the inability to defeat Great Britain prevented the movement of Jews across the seas,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning200488_113-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning200488-113\">[107]<\/a><\/sup> and the end of the Madagascar Plan was announced on 10 February 1942.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHildebrand200570_114-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHildebrand200570-114\">[108]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"World_War_II\">World War II<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_during_World_War_II\" title=\"History of the Jews during World War II\">History of the Jews during World War II<\/a><\/div>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"German-occupied_Poland\">German-occupied Poland<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:332px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Germany1941.png\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/05\/Germany1941.png\/330px-Germany1941.png\" width=\"330\" height=\"284\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/05\/Germany1941.png\/495px-Germany1941.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/05\/Germany1941.png\/660px-Germany1941.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"698\" data-file-height=\"600\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Germany1941.png\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nNazi Germany before <a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Barbarossa\" title=\"Operation Barbarossa\">Operation Barbarossa<\/a> in 1941, with <a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_areas_annexed_by_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany\">areas annexed from Poland<\/a> and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Government\" title=\"General Government\">General Government<\/a> territory<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">The Holocaust in Poland<\/a><\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Invasion_of_Poland\" title=\"Invasion of Poland\">Invasion of Poland<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%931945)\" title=\"Occupation of Poland (1939\u20131945)\">Occupation of Poland (1939\u20131945)<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Poland\" title=\"History of the Jews in Poland\">History of the Jews in Poland<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland\" title=\"Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland\">Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Government\" title=\"General Government\">General Government<\/a><\/div>\n<p>When Germany <a href=\"\/wiki\/Invasion_of_Poland_(1939)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Invasion of Poland (1939)\">invaded Poland<\/a>, it gained control of about 2 million Jews in the territory it occupied. The rest of Poland was occupied by the Soviet Union, who thus gained control of the rest of Poland's pre-war population of 3.3 to 3.5 million Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008158.E2.80.93159_115-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008158.E2.80.93159-115\">[109]<\/a><\/sup> German plans for Poland included expelling the Poles from large areas, the confining of Jews, and settling Germans on the lands emptied. To help the process along, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reinhard_Heydrich\" title=\"Reinhard Heydrich\">Reinhard Heydrich<\/a>, head of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reich_Security_Main_Office\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Reich Security Main Office\">Reich Security Main Office<\/a>, ordered that the \"leadership class\" in Poland must be killed and the Jews expelled.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009104.E2.80.93105_116-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009104.E2.80.93105-116\">[110]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The Germans initiated a policy of sending Jews from all the areas they had recently annexed (Austria, Czechoslovakia, and parts of Poland) to the central section of Poland, which they called the <a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Government\" title=\"General Government\">General Government<\/a>. There the Jews were concentrated in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe\">ghettos<\/a> in major cities.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-117\">[111]<\/a><\/sup> Cities chosen were located on railway lines to facilitate later deportation.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004111.E2.80.93113_118-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004111.E2.80.93113-118\">[112]<\/a><\/sup> Food supplies were restricted and public hygiene was difficult. The inhabitants subjected to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Forced_labour\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Forced labour\">forced labour<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9330_119-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9330-119\">[113]<\/a><\/sup> In the labour camps and ghettos in Poland between 1939 and 1941 at least half a million Jews died of starvation, diseases, and the poor living conditions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009111_120-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009111-120\">[114]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:252px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv,_west_Ukraine.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/3f\/Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv%2C_west_Ukraine.jpg\/250px-Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv%2C_west_Ukraine.jpg\" width=\"250\" height=\"156\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/3f\/Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv%2C_west_Ukraine.jpg\/375px-Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv%2C_west_Ukraine.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/3f\/Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv%2C_west_Ukraine.jpg\/500px-Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv%2C_west_Ukraine.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"1108\" data-file-height=\"691\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Nazi_Holocaust_by_bullets_-_Jewish_mass_grave_near_Zolochiv,_west_Ukraine.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nJewish mass grave near <a href=\"\/wiki\/Zolochiv\" title=\"Zolochiv\">Z\u0142ocz\u00f3w<\/a> (Nazi occupied Poland), now western <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukraine\" title=\"Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a>. Photo was found by the Soviets at a former Gestapo headquarters in Z\u0142ocz\u00f3w.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The ghettos were not initially considered a step along the way towards the extermination of the Jews. Instead, they were one step towards a policy of creating a territorial reservation to contain Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201631_121-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201631-121\">[115]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Lublin_reservation_.28Nisko_plan.29\">Lublin reservation (Nisko plan)<\/span><\/h4>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nisko_Plan\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nisko Plan\">Nisko Plan<\/a><\/div>\n<p>After the invasion of Poland, the Germans set up a \"Jewish reservation\" in the Lublin area, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nisko_Plan\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nisko Plan\">Nisko Plan<\/a>. Adolf Eichmann was assigned the task of removing all Jews from Germany, Austria, and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Protectorate_of_Bohemia_and_Moravia\" title=\"Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia\">Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia<\/a> to this reservation.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani200477.E2.80.9379_122-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani200477.E2.80.9379-122\">[116]<\/a><\/sup> The first Jews were sent in October 1939.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000153_123-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000153-123\">[117]<\/a><\/sup> Although 80,000 Jews were initially planned to be deported, only 4700 were actually transported.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016258.E2.80.93260_124-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016258.E2.80.93260-124\">[118]<\/a><\/sup> In late March 1940 G\u00f6ring put the Nisko Plan on hold,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000154_125-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000154-125\">[119]<\/a><\/sup> and it was abandoned completely in April 1940.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016260_126-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016260-126\">[120]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Other_occupied_countries\">Other occupied countries<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">See also: <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Italian_Libya\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"The Holocaust in Italian Libya\">The Holocaust in Italian Libya<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Germany invaded <a href=\"\/wiki\/Norway\" title=\"Norway\">Norway<\/a> in April 1940 and had completed their occupation by June.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137_127-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137-127\">[121]<\/a><\/sup> There were about 1800 Jews in Norway, and they were initially the object of persecution by Norwegian Nazis. In late 1940, they were banned from some occupations and in 1941 all Jews had to register their property with the government.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162_128-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162-128\">[122]<\/a><\/sup> Also in 1940, Germany invaded Denmark,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137_127-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137-127\">[121]<\/a><\/sup> where the country was overrun so quickly there was no chance of resistance. Consequently, the Danish government stayed in place and the Germans found it easier to work through the local government. Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before 1942.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002161_129-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002161-129\">[123]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The Germans invaded the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Netherlands\" title=\"Netherlands\">Netherlands<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Luxembourg\" title=\"Luxembourg\">Luxembourg<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Belgium\" title=\"Belgium\">Belgium<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/France\" title=\"France\">France<\/a> in May 1940. In the Netherlands, the Germans installed <a href=\"\/wiki\/Arthur_Seyss-Inquart\" title=\"Arthur Seyss-Inquart\">Arthur Seyss-Inquart<\/a> as <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reichskommissar\" title=\"Reichskommissar\">Reichskommissar<\/a><\/i>, who quickly began to persecute the approximately 140,000 Dutch Jews. Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. Non-Jewish Dutch citizens protested these measures, and held a strike in February 1941 that was crushed quickly.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162.E2.80.93163_130-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162.E2.80.93163-130\">[124]<\/a><\/sup> After Belgium's surrender at the end of May 1940, it was ruled by a German military governor, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Alexander_von_Falkenhausen\" title=\"Alexander von Falkenhausen\">Alexander von Falkenhausen<\/a>, which enacted anti-Jewish measures against the approximately 90,000 Jews in Belgium, many of whom were refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002164_131-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002164-131\">[125]<\/a><\/sup> France had approximately 300,000 Jews, divided between the German-occupied northern part of France, and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas under the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Vichy_regime\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Vichy regime\">Vichy regime<\/a>. The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, where anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002165.E2.80.93166_132-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002165.E2.80.93166-132\">[126]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In October 1940, <i>Gauleiters<\/i> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_B%C3%BCrckel\" title=\"Josef B\u00fcrckel\">Josef B\u00fcrckel<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Heinrich_Wagner\" title=\"Robert Heinrich Wagner\">Robert Heinrich Wagner<\/a> oversaw Operation <i>B\u00fcrckel<\/i>, the expulsion of the Jews into unoccupied France from their <i>gaues<\/i> and the parts of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Alsace-Lorraine\" title=\"Alsace-Lorraine\">Alsace-Lorraine<\/a> that had been annexed to Germany. Only those Jews in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-miscegenation_laws#Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Anti-miscegenation laws\">mixed marriages<\/a> were not expelled.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857_133-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857-133\">[127]<\/a><\/sup> The Jews expelled in Operation <i>B\u00fcrckel<\/i> were interned in harsh conditions by the Vichy authorities at various camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857_133-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857-133\">[127]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yugoslavia\" title=\"Yugoslavia\">Yugoslavia<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Greece\" title=\"Greece\">Greece<\/a> were invaded in April 1941, and both countries surrendered before the end of the month. Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones, but did not eliminate it as a country. Yugoslavia was dismembered, with regions in the north being annexed by Germany and regions along the coast were made part of Italy. The rest of the country was divided into a puppet state of Croatia, nominally an ally of Germany, and Serbia, which was governed by a combination of military and police administrators. There were approximately 80,000 Jews in Yugoslavia when it was invaded. The ruling party in Croatia, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ustasha\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ustasha\">Ustasha<\/a>, not only killed Jews, but also murdered and expelled Orthodox Christian Serbs and Muslims too.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002192.E2.80.93193_134-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002192.E2.80.93193-134\">[128]<\/a><\/sup> One difference between the Germans and the Croatians was the Ustasha's allowing its Jewish and Serbian victims to convert to Catholcism to escape death. Serbia was declared to be free of Jews in August 1942.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134_135-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134-135\">[129]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Germany.27s_allies\">Germany's allies<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>Germany's ally <a href=\"\/wiki\/Italy\" title=\"Italy\">Italy<\/a> introduced some antisemitic measures, but there was less antisemitism in the populace than in Germany. Italian-occupied countries were generally safer for Jews than German-occupied territories. In some areas, the Italian authorities even attempted to protect Jews, such as in the Croatian areas of the Balkans. But while Italian forces in Russia were not as vicious towards Jews as the Germans, they did not try to stop German atrocities there either. There were no deportations of Italian Jews to Germany while Italy remained an ally.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016137.E2.80.93139_136-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016137.E2.80.93139-136\">[130]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Finland\" title=\"Finland\">Finland<\/a> was pressured give the Germans its Jews (who numbered around 200) in 1942, but given the opposition among the people and government, this did not happen. Eight non-Finnish Jews were deported in late 1942,<sup id=\"cite_ref-138\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-138\">[g]<\/a><\/sup> but that was the only case. Finnish Jews even fought in the army during the period it was allied with Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140_137-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140-137\">[131]<\/a><\/sup> Japan had little antisemitism in its society, and did not persecute Jews in most of the territories it controlled. Jews in Shanghai were confined, but despite German pressure, they were not killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016141_139-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016141-139\">[132]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Romania\" title=\"Romania\">Romania<\/a> implemented a number of anti-Jewish measures in May and June 1940 as part of their efforts towards an alliance with Germany. These included forcing Jews from government service and the relegation of Jews to the status of second-class citizens. Pogroms were also carried out and by March 1941 Jewish property had been confiscated and all Jews lost their jobs. After Romania joined the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Romanian troops carried out massacres through Romanian-controlled territory, including the <a href=\"\/wiki\/1941_Odessa_massacre\" title=\"1941 Odessa massacre\">Odessa massacre<\/a> of 20,000 Jews in Odessa in late 1941. Romania also set up concentration camps under their control in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Transnistria\" title=\"Transnistria\">Transnistria<\/a>, where approximately 154,000 to 170,000 Jews were deported from 1941 to 1943.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131.E2.80.93133_140-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131.E2.80.93133-140\">[133]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Slovakia\" title=\"Slovakia\">Slovakia<\/a> introduced anti-Jewish measures similar to those in Germany, and later would deport its Jews to German concentration and extermination camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134.E2.80.93135_141-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134.E2.80.93135-141\">[134]<\/a><\/sup> Bulgaria introduced some anti-Jewish measures in 1940 and 1941, including the requirement to wear a yellow star, the banning of mixed marriages, and loss of property. Jews in Thrace and Macedonia, which were annexed by Bulgaria, were deported to Treblinka in March 1943. But when plans to deport 6000 Bulgarian Jews became public, the Orthodox Church and many Bulgarians protested, and King <a href=\"\/wiki\/Boris_III_of_Bulgaria\" title=\"Boris III of Bulgaria\">Boris III<\/a> banned the deportation of Jews from pre-war Bulgaria.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016136.E2.80.93137_142-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016136.E2.80.93137-142\">[135]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Although <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hungary\" title=\"Hungary\">Hungary<\/a> expelled Jews in its newly annexed lands who were not Hungarian citizens in 1941, it did not deport most of the Hungarian Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016135_143-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016135-143\">[136]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Several forced labor camps for Jews were established in Italian-controlled Libya. Almost 2600 Libyan Jews were sent to camps, where 562 died.<sup id=\"cite_ref-144\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-144\">[137]<\/a><\/sup> Vichy France's government implemented anti-Jewish measures in <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Algeria\" title=\"French Algeria\">French Algeria<\/a> and the two French Protectorates of <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Protectorate_of_Tunisia\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"French Protectorate of Tunisia\">Tunisia<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_protectorate_in_Morocco\" title=\"French protectorate in Morocco\">Morocco<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer2001256.E2.80.93257_145-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer2001256.E2.80.93257-145\">[138]<\/a><\/sup> Tunisia had 85,000 Jews when the Germans and Italians arrived in November 1942. An estimated 5,000 Jews were subjected to forced labor.<sup id=\"cite_ref-146\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-146\">[139]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Concentration_and_labor_camps_.281933.E2.80.931945.29\">Concentration and labor camps (1933\u20131945)<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"Nazi concentration camps\">Nazi concentration camps<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"List of Nazi concentration camps\">List of Nazi concentration camps<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_through_labor\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Extermination through labor\">Extermination through labor<\/a><\/div>\n<p>The Third Reich first used concentration camps as places of incarceration, and large numbers of Jews did not get sent there until after Kristallnacht.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135_147-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135-147\">[140]<\/a><\/sup> They were not designed to be killing centers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201050.E2.80.9352_148-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201050.E2.80.9352-148\">[141]<\/a><\/sup> After the start of the war, new camps were established, and some were located outside Germany in occupied Europe. The number of prisoners also grew, to about 80,000. Most of these prisoners were not Germans, but from other countries under the control of the Germans.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288_149-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288-149\">[142]<\/a><\/sup> It is estimated in the occupied countries that Germans established 30,000 slave labor camps and subcamps, almost 1,000 concentration camps, and another 1,000 prisoner-of-war camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013-150\">[143]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>After 1942, the economic functions of the camps, previously secondary to their control and terrorism functions, came to the fore. Forced labour of camp prisoners became commonplace and companies utilized cheap prisoner labour.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135_147-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135-147\">[140]<\/a><\/sup> The guards became much more brutal, and the death rate increased markedly as the guards not only beat and starved prisoners, but also killed them more frequently.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288_149-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288-149\">[142]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_through_labour\" title=\"Extermination through labour\">Extermination through labour<\/a> was a policy of systematic extermination\u2014camp inmates would literally be worked to death, or worked to physical exhaustion, when they would be gassed or shot.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham20001.E2.80.9337_151-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham20001.E2.80.9337-151\">[144]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010314.E2.80.93320_152-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010314.E2.80.93320-152\">[145]<\/a><\/sup> For many prisoners, the Germans estimated the average life span in a concentration camp at three months, mainly due to lack of food and clothing, constant epidemics, and frequent punishments for the most minor transgressions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201676_153-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201676-153\">[146]<\/a><\/sup> The shifts were long and often involved exposure to dangerous materials. Safety was neglected.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016104_154-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016104-154\">[147]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Prisoner transportation between camps was often carried out in freight cars with the prisoners packed very tightly. Long delays often took place, with the prisoners confined in the cars on sidings for days.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTERozett19901222_155-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTERozett19901222-155\">[148]<\/a><\/sup> In mid-1942 labour camps began requiring newly arrived prisoners to be put into quarantine for four weeks.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015347_156-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015347-156\">[149]<\/a><\/sup> Some camps <a href=\"\/wiki\/Identification_in_Nazi_camps\" title=\"Identification in Nazi camps\">tattooed prisoners<\/a> with an identification number on arrival, but not all did.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000461_157-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000461-157\">[150]<\/a><\/sup> Prisoners also had <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camp_badge\" title=\"Nazi concentration camp badge\">colored triangles<\/a> on their uniforms, with the color of the triangle denoting the reason for their incarceration.<sup id=\"cite_ref-163\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-163\">[h]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015119_164-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015119-164\">[156]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Ghettos_.281939.E2.80.931945.29\">Ghettos (1939\u20131945)<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Childwarsawghetto.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/3\/3c\/Childwarsawghetto.jpg\/220px-Childwarsawghetto.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"222\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/3\/3c\/Childwarsawghetto.jpg\/330px-Childwarsawghetto.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/3\/3c\/Childwarsawghetto.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"400\" data-file-height=\"403\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Childwarsawghetto.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nA starving child lying in the streets of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw Ghetto<\/a>.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe\">Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland\" title=\"Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland\">Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi-era_ghettos\" title=\"List of Nazi-era ghettos\">List of Nazi-era ghettos<\/a><\/div>\n<dl>\n<dd><i>Main ghettos: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Budapest_Ghetto\" title=\"Budapest Ghetto\">Budapest<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Krak\u00f3w Ghetto\">Krak\u00f3w<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kovno_Ghetto\" title=\"Kovno Ghetto\">Kovno<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0141\u00f3d\u017a Ghetto\">\u0141\u00f3d\u017a<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Lw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Lvov<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Riga_Ghetto\" title=\"Riga Ghetto\">Riga<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Vilna_Ghetto\" title=\"Vilna Ghetto\">Vilna<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw<\/a>.<\/i><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<p>After invading Poland, the Nazis established ghettos in the incorporated territories and General Government to confine Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-117\">[111]<\/a><\/sup> The ghettos were formed and closed off from the outside world at different times and for different reasons.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1986345.E2.80.93348_165-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1986345.E2.80.93348-165\">[157]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003216.E2.80.937_166-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003216.E2.80.937-166\">[158]<\/a><\/sup> For example, the \u0141\u00f3d\u017a ghetto was closed in April 1940,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-117\">[111]<\/a><\/sup> to force the Jews inside to give up money and valuables;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990166_167-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990166-167\">[159]<\/a><\/sup> the Warsaw ghetto was closed for health considerations (for the people outside, not inside, the ghetto),<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990169_168-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990169-168\">[160]<\/a><\/sup> but this did not happen until November 1940;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-117\">[111]<\/a><\/sup> and the Krakow ghetto was not established until March 1941.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010161_169-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010161-169\">[161]<\/a><\/sup> The Warsaw Ghetto contained 380,000 people<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-4\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-117\">[111]<\/a><\/sup> and was the largest Polish ghetto; the \u0141\u00f3d\u017a Ghetto was the second largest,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010167_170-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010167-170\">[162]<\/a><\/sup> holding between 160,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990165_171-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990165-171\">[163]<\/a><\/sup> to 230,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009112_172-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009112-172\">[164]<\/a><\/sup> Because of the long drawn-out process of establishing ghettos, it is unlikely that they were originally considered part of a systematic attempt to eliminate Jews completely.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010166_173-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010166-173\">[165]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The Germans required each ghetto to be run by a <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Judenrat\" title=\"Judenrat\">Judenrat<\/a><\/i>, or Jewish council.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrunk19961.E2.80.936_174-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrunk19961.E2.80.936-174\">[166]<\/a><\/sup> Councils were responsible for a ghetto's day-to-day operations, including distributing food, water, heat, medical care, and shelter. The Germans also required councils to confiscate property, organize forced labor, and, finally, facilitate deportations to extermination camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995106_175-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995106-175\">[167]<\/a><\/sup> The councils' basic strategy was one of trying to minimise losses, by cooperating with Nazi authorities, bribing officials, and petitioning for better conditions or clemency.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995170_176-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995170-176\">[168]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/50\/Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg\/220px-Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"154\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/50\/Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg\/330px-Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/50\/Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg\/440px-Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2160\" data-file-height=\"1514\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nEmaciated corpses of children in Warsaw Ghetto<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Eventually the Germans ordered the councils to compile lists of names of deportees to be sent for \"resettlement\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93117_177-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93117-177\">[169]<\/a><\/sup> Although most ghetto councils complied with these orders,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1980104_178-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1980104-178\">[170]<\/a><\/sup> many councils tried to send either outsiders, such as the Roma, or the least useful workers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93119_179-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93119-179\">[171]<\/a><\/sup> Leaders who refused these orders were shot. Some individuals or even complete councils committed suicide rather than cooperate with the deportations.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200681.E2.80.9383_180-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200681.E2.80.9383-180\">[172]<\/a><\/sup> Others, like <a href=\"\/wiki\/Chaim_Rumkowski\" title=\"Chaim Rumkowski\">Chaim Rumkowski<\/a>, who became the \"dedicated autocrat\" of \u0141\u00f3d\u017a,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995109_181-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995109-181\">[173]<\/a><\/sup> argued that their responsibility was to save the Jews who could be saved, and that therefore others had to be sacrificed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200679.E2.80.9381_182-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200679.E2.80.9381-182\">[174]<\/a><\/sup> The councils' actions in facilitating Germany's persecution and murder of ghetto inhabitants was important to the Nazis.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031111_183-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031111-183\">[175]<\/a><\/sup> When cooperation crumbled, as happened in the Warsaw ghetto after the Jewish Combat Organisation displaced the council's authority, the Germans lost control.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010285_184-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010285-184\">[176]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Ghettos were intended to be temporary until the Jews were deported to other locations, which never happened. Instead, the inhabitants were sent to extermination camps. The ghettos were, in effect, immensely crowded prisons serving as instruments of \"slow, passive murder.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114_185-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114-185\">[177]<\/a><\/sup> Though the Warsaw Ghetto contained 30% of Warsaw's population, it occupied only 2.5% of the city's area, averaging over 9 people per room.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003239_186-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003239-186\">[178]<\/a><\/sup> Between 1940 and 1942, starvation and disease, especially <a href=\"\/wiki\/Typhoid_fever\" title=\"Typhoid fever\">typhoid<\/a>, killed many in the ghettos.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003242.E2.80.93243_187-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003242.E2.80.93243-187\">[179]<\/a><\/sup> Over 43,000 Warsaw ghetto residents, or one in ten of the total population, died in 1941;<sup id=\"cite_ref-USHMMDepoWar_188-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-USHMMDepoWar-188\">[180]<\/a><\/sup> in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Theresienstadt\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Theresienstadt\">Theresienstadt<\/a>, more than half the residents died in 1942.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114_185-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114-185\">[177]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Himmler ordered the closing of the Polish ghettos in mid-July 1942, with most inhabitants going to extermination camps. Those Jews needed for war production would be confined at concentration camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378_189-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378-189\">[181]<\/a><\/sup> The deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto began on 22 July; over the almost two months of the <i>Aktion<\/i>, until 12 September, the Warsaw ghetto went from approximately 350,000 inhabitants to about 65,000. Those deported were <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_trains\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Holocaust trains\">transported in freight trains<\/a> to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka extermination camp<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378.E2.80.93380_190-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378.E2.80.93380-190\">[182]<\/a><\/sup> Similar deportations happened in other ghettos, with many ghettos totally emptied.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990382.E2.80.93385_191-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990382.E2.80.93385-191\">[183]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The first <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Ghetto uprising\">ghetto uprisings<\/a> occurred in mid-1942 in small community ghettos.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990474.E2.80.93478_192-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990474.E2.80.93478-192\">[184]<\/a><\/sup> Although there were armed resistance attempts in both the larger and smaller ghettos in 1943, in every case they failed against the overwhelming Nazi military force, and the remaining Jews were either killed or deported to the death camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006175.E2.80.93177_193-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006175.E2.80.93177-193\">[185]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Pogroms_.281939.E2.80.931942.29\">Pogroms (1939\u20131942)<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Lviv_pogrom_(June_-_July_1941).jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/15\/Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg\/170px-Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"233\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/15\/Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg\/255px-Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/15\/Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg\/340px-Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"438\" data-file-height=\"600\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Lviv_pogrom_(June_-_July_1941).jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nJewish woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv pogroms<\/a>, July 1941, then <a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupied_Poland\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Occupied Poland\">occupied Poland<\/a>, now Ukraine<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom\" title=\"Pogrom\">Pogrom<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Dorohoi_Pogrom\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Dorohoi Pogrom\">Dorohoi Pogrom<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ia%C5%9Fi_pogrom\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ia\u015fi pogrom\">Ia\u015fi pogrom<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jedwabne_Massacre\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Jedwabne Massacre\">Jedwabne Massacre<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Legionnaires%27_Rebellion_and_Bucharest_Pogrom\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Legionnaires' Rebellion and Bucharest Pogrom\">Legionnaires' Rebellion and Bucharest Pogrom<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv pogroms<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/1941_Odessa_massacre\" title=\"1941 Odessa massacre\">1941 Odessa massacre<\/a><\/div>\n<p>A number of deadly pogroms occurred during the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990163.2C_258_194-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990163.2C_258-194\">[186]<\/a><\/sup> The Nazis encouraged some and others were spontaneous.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009155_195-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009155-195\">[187]<\/a><\/sup> Some, such as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ia%C5%9Fi_pogrom\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ia\u015fi pogrom\">Ia\u015fi pogrom<\/a>, were in lands controlled by Germany's allies.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003267.E2.80.93269_196-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003267.E2.80.93269-196\">[188]<\/a><\/sup> In the series of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv pogroms<\/a> committed in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupied_Poland\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Occupied Poland\">occupied Poland<\/a>, perhaps initiated by the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Organization_of_Ukrainian_Nationalists\" title=\"Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists\">Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists<\/a>, some 6,000 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_Jews\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Polish Jews\">Polish Jews<\/a> were murdered in the streets in July 1941, on top of 3,000 arrests and mass shootings by <i>Einsatzgruppe C<\/i>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194_197-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194-197\">[189]<\/a><\/sup> During the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jedwabne_pogrom\" title=\"Jedwabne pogrom\">Jedwabne pogrom<\/a> of July 1941, in the presence of the Nazi officers, several hundred Jews were murdered by some local Poles, with some being burned alive in a barn.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196_198-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196-198\">[190]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-199\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-199\">[i]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Death_squads_.281941.E2.80.931943.29\">Death squads (1941\u20131943)<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">The Holocaust in Ukraine<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">The Holocaust in Lithuania<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">The Holocaust in Latvia<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">The Holocaust in Estonia<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">The Holocaust in Belarus<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">The Holocaust in Russia<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_graves_in_the_Soviet_Union\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Mass graves in the Soviet Union\">Mass graves in the Soviet Union<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht\" title=\"War crimes of the Wehrmacht\">War crimes of the Wehrmacht<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II\">Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II<\/a><\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">See also: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar\" title=\"Babi Yar\">Babi Yar<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rumbula_massacre\" title=\"Rumbula massacre\">Rumbula massacre<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kamianets-Podilskyi_Massacre\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre\">Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ponary_massacre\" title=\"Ponary massacre\">Ponary massacre<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_(1942).jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/8\/84\/Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_%281942%29.jpg\/220px-Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_%281942%29.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"152\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/8\/84\/Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_%281942%29.jpg\/330px-Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_%281942%29.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/8\/84\/Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_%281942%29.jpg\/440px-Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_%281942%29.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2528\" data-file-height=\"1744\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Jew_Killings_in_Ivangorod_(1942).jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nExecutions of Jews by German army mobile killing units (<i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i>) near <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ivanhorod\" title=\"Ivanhorod\">Ivanhorod<\/a>, now Ukraine. The photo was mailed from the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)\" title=\"Eastern Front (World War II)\">Eastern Front<\/a> to Germany and intercepted by a member of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_resistance_movement_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Polish resistance movement in World War II\">the Polish resistance<\/a>.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 opened a new phase in the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198959_200-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198959-200\">[191]<\/a><\/sup> Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish, Romani and Slavic <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Untermenschen\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Untermenschen\">Untermenschen<\/a><\/i> (\"sub-humans\").<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleigh2001512.2C_526.E2.80.93527_201-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleigh2001512.2C_526.E2.80.93527-201\">[192]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e8\/Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg\/220px-Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"140\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e8\/Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg\/330px-Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e8\/Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg\/440px-Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"640\" data-file-height=\"406\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nGerman police shooting women and children from the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mizocz_Ghetto\" title=\"Mizocz Ghetto\">Mizocz Ghetto<\/a>, 14 October 1942<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Local populations in some occupied Soviet territories actively participated in the killings of Jews and others. Besides participating in killings and pogroms, they helped identify Jews for persecution and rounded up Jews for German actions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268_202-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268-202\">[193]<\/a><\/sup> German involvement ranged from active instigation and involvement to more generalized guidance.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275_203-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275-203\">[194]<\/a><\/sup> In Lithuania, Latvia, and western Ukraine locals were deeply involved in the murder of Jews from the beginning of the German occupation. Some of these Latvian and Lithuanian units also participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus. In the south, Ukrainians killed about 24,000 Jews and some went to Poland to serve as concentration and death-camp guards.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268_202-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268-202\">[193]<\/a><\/sup> Military units from some countries allied to Germany also killed Jews. Romanian units were given orders to exterminate and wipe out Jews in areas they controlled.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275.E2.80.93276_204-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275.E2.80.93276-204\">[195]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Usta%C5%A1e_militia\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Usta\u0161e militia\">Usta\u0161e militia<\/a> in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Independent_State_of_Croatia\" title=\"Independent State of Croatia\">Croatia<\/a> persecuted and murdered Jews, among others.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134_135-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134-135\">[129]<\/a><\/sup> Many of the killings were carried out in public, a change from previous practice.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004270.E2.80.93271_205-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004270.E2.80.93271-205\">[196]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The mass killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories was assigned to four SS formations called <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i> (\"task groups\"), which were under Heydrich's overall command. Similar formations had been used to a limited extent in Poland in 1939, but the ones operating in the Soviet territories were much larger.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004224.E2.80.93225_206-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004224.E2.80.93225-206\">[197]<\/a><\/sup> The <i>Einsatzgruppen'<\/i>s commanders were ordinary citizens: the great majority were professionals and most were intellectuals.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003291_207-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003291-207\">[198]<\/a><\/sup> By the winter of 1941\u20131942, the four <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> and their helpers had killed almost 500,000 people.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel202067_208-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel202067-208\">[199]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f7\/Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg\/220px-Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg\" width=\"220\" height=\"146\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f7\/Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg\/330px-Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f7\/Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg\/440px-Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg 2x\" data-file-width=\"480\" data-file-height=\"319\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nThe <a href=\"\/wiki\/Liep%C4%81ja_massacres\" title=\"Liep\u0101ja massacres\">mass murder of 2,749 Jews on the beach near the city of Liep\u0101ja<\/a>, in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Latvia\" title=\"Latvia\">Latvia<\/a>, on 15\u201317 December 1941.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Probably the largest massacre of Jews by the mobile killing squads in the Soviet Union was at a ravine called <a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar\" title=\"Babi Yar\">Babi Yar<\/a> outside <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kiev\" title=\"Kiev\">Kiev<\/a>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009156.E2.80.93157_209-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009156.E2.80.93157-209\">[200]<\/a><\/sup> where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation on 29\u201330 September 1941.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008226.E2.80.93227_210-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008226.E2.80.93227-210\">[201]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-212\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-212\">[j]<\/a><\/sup> A mixture of SS and Security Police, assisted by Ukrainian police, carried out the killings.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002203_213-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002203-213\">[203]<\/a><\/sup> Although they did not actively participate in the killings, men of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/6th_Army_(Wehrmacht)\" title=\"6th Army (Wehrmacht)\">6th Army<\/a> helped round up the Jews of Kiev and transport them to be shot.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011102.E2.80.93104_214-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011102.E2.80.93104-214\">[204]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>By the end of the war, estimates of the number of victims of the <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> and their helpers in the local population and the German Army are about 2 million. Of those, about 1.3 million were Jews and perhaps as many as quarter million were Roma.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009157_215-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009157-215\">[205]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Gas_vans\">Gas vans<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>As the mass shootings continued in Russia, the Germans began to search for new methods of mass murder. This was driven by a need to have a more efficient method than simply shooting millions of victims. Himmler also feared that the mass shootings were causing psychological problems in the SS. His concerns were shared by his subordinates in the field.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199842.E2.80.9343_216-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199842.E2.80.9343-216\">[206]<\/a><\/sup> Starting in December 1939, another method besides shooting was tried. Experimental <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_van\" title=\"Gas van\">gas vans<\/a> equipped with gas cylinders and a sealed compartment were used to kill the disabled and mentally-ill in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%931945)\" title=\"Occupation of Poland (1939\u20131945)\">occupied Poland<\/a>, as part of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Action_T4\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Action T4\">Action T4<\/a>. In the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, larger vans holding up to 100 people were used from November 1941, using the engine's exhaust rather than tanked gases. Similar vans were introduced to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno extermination camp<\/a> in December 1941, and another 15 were used by the <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)\" title=\"Eastern Front (World War II)\">occupied Soviet Union<\/a>. The vans were used to kill about 500,000 people, primarily Jews but also Romani and others.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBenz200798_217-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBenz200798-217\">[207]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Final_Solution\">Final Solution<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a><\/div>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Wannsee_Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wannsee_Conference\" title=\"Wannsee Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/a><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reinhard_Heydrich\" title=\"Reinhard Heydrich\">Reinhard Heydrich<\/a> convened the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wannsee_Conference\" title=\"Wannsee Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/a> on 20 January 1942 in Berlin's Wannsee suburb. It brought together Nazi leaders, from the party and government departments responsible for policies linked to Jewish issues. The conference's initial purpose was to discuss plans for a comprehensive solution to the \"Jewish question in Europe.\" Heydrich was put in overall charge of \"final solution\" throughout Europe.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199845_218-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199845-218\">[208]<\/a><\/sup> Heydrich meant for the conference to share information among the officials so they would all share responsibility.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010305_219-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010305-219\">[209]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>A copy of the minutes survives, but on Heydrich's instructions, they were written in \"euphemistic language\" so the exact words used are not known.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010306_220-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010306-220\">[210]<\/a><\/sup> But Heydrich announced that the immigration plan had been replaced by an approach of deporting Jews to the east. This was just a provisional solution leading up to a final solution that would involve some 11<span class=\"nowrap\"> <\/span>million Jews living not only in territories controlled by Germany, but throughout continental Europe and areas adjacent to it.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307_221-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307-221\">[211]<\/a><\/sup> There was little doubt what the solution was: \"Heydrich also made it clear what was understood by the phrase 'Final Solution': the Jews were to be annihilated by a combination of forced labour and mass murder.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010308_222-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010308-222\">[212]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Extermination_camps\">Extermination camps<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination camp<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation Reinhard<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Killing on a mass scale with gas as the main killing means is the main difference between a death or extermination camp and the rest of the German concentration and labour camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006153_223-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006153-223\">[213]<\/a><\/sup> During 1942 three camps were built as extermination camps for <a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation Reinhard<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-aktr_224-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-aktr-224\">[214]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-226\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-226\">[k]<\/a><\/sup> About the same time, two other camps, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a><sup id=\"cite_ref-231\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-231\">[l]<\/a><\/sup> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a><sup id=\"cite_ref-233\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-233\">[m]<\/a><\/sup> which already existed had extermination facilities added to them.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9371_234-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9371-234\">[221]<\/a><\/sup> The three new camps were built for the sole purpose of killing large numbers of Jews as quickly as possible \u2013 at <a href=\"\/wiki\/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669_235-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669-235\">[222]<\/a><\/sup> At around the same time, Auschwitz, which was actually three camps, was experimenting with systematic killing.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201671.E2.80.9372_236-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201671.E2.80.9372-236\">[223]<\/a><\/sup> These six camps are generally considered to be death camps or extermination camps. A few other camps are occasionally also named as extermination camps, but there is no scholarly agreement on the additional camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358_237-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358-237\">[224]<\/a><\/sup> Commonly mentioned as \"other\" death camps are <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mauthausen\" title=\"Mauthausen\">Mauthausen<\/a> in Austria<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358_237-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358-237\">[224]<\/a><\/sup> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Stutthof\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Stutthof\">Stutthof<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881_238-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881-238\">[225]<\/a><\/sup> There may have been plans for camps at Mogilev and Lvov also, but they never progressed past the planning stage.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282_239-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282-239\">[226]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<table class=\"wikitable\" style=\"float:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:80%\">\n<caption>Approx. number killed at each extermination camp<\/caption>\n<tr>\n<th>Camp name<\/th>\n<th>Killed<\/th>\n<th><a href=\"\/wiki\/Geographic_coordinate_system\" title=\"Geographic coordinate system\">Coordinates<\/a><sup id=\"cite_ref-240\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-240\">[227]<\/a><\/sup><\/th>\n<th>Ref.<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz II<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">1,000,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=50_2_9_N_19_10_42_E_region:PL-25_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=O%C5%9Bwi%C4%99cim+%28Auschwitz%2C+Poland%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">50\u00b02\u20329\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">19\u00b010\u203242\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">50.03583\u00b0N 19.17833\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">50.03583; 19.17833<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">O\u015bwi\u0119cim (Auschwitz, Poland)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-241\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-241\">[228]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">600,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=50_22_18_N_23_27_27_E_region:PL-70_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Belzec+%28Poland%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">50\u00b022\u203218\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">23\u00b027\u203227\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">50.37167\u00b0N 23.45750\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">50.37167; 23.45750<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Belzec (Poland)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-yvBelzec_242-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvBelzec-242\">[229]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">320,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=52_9_27_N_18_43_43_E_region:PL-51_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Che%C5%82mno+%28Poland%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">52\u00b09\u203227\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">18\u00b043\u203243\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">52.15750\u00b0N 18.72861\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">52.15750; 18.72861<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Che\u0142mno (Poland)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvChelmno-225\">[215]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jasenovac_concentration_camp\" title=\"Jasenovac concentration camp\">Jasenovac<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">83,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=45_16_54_N_16_56_6_E_region:HR-14_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Jasenovac+%28Sisa%C4%8Dko-Moslava%C4%8Dka%2C+Croatia%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">45\u00b016\u203254\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">16\u00b056\u20326\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">45.28167\u00b0N 16.93500\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">45.28167; 16.93500<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Jasenovac (Sisa\u010dko-Moslava\u010dka, Croatia)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-JaseMS_243-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-JaseMS-243\">[230]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">78,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=51_13_13_N_22_36_0_E_region:PL-45_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Majdanek+%28Poland%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">51\u00b013\u203213\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">22\u00b036\u20320\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">51.22028\u00b0N 22.60000\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">51.22028; 22.60000<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Majdanek (Poland)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-yvMaj_244-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvMaj-244\">[231]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp\" title=\"Maly Trostenets extermination camp\">Maly Trostinets<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">65,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=53_51_4_N_27_42_17_E_region:BO-00_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Malyy+Trostenets+%28Belarus%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">53\u00b051\u20324\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">27\u00b042\u203217\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">53.85111\u00b0N 27.70472\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">53.85111; 27.70472<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Malyy Trostenets (Belarus)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-yvMaly_245-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvMaly-245\">[232]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">250,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=51_26_50_N_23_35_37_E_region:PL-29_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Sobib%C3%B3r+%28Poland%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">51\u00b026\u203250\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">23\u00b035\u203237\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">51.44722\u00b0N 23.59361\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">51.44722; 23.59361<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Sobib\u00f3r (Poland)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-yvSob_246-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvSob-246\">[233]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th align=\"left\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/th>\n<td align=\"right\">870,000<\/td>\n<td><span class=\"plainlinks nourlexpansion\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/geohack\/geohack.php?pagename=The_Holocaust&params=52_37_35_N_22_2_49_E_region:PL-49_type:landmark_source:GNIS&title=Treblinka+%28Poland%29\"><span class=\"geo-default\"><span class=\"geo-dms\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\"><span class=\"latitude\">52\u00b037\u203235\u2033N<\/span> <span class=\"longitude\">22\u00b02\u203249\u2033E<\/span><\/span><\/span><span class=\"geo-multi-punct\">\ufeff \/ \ufeff<\/span><span class=\"geo-nondefault\"><span class=\"vcard\"><span class=\"geo-dec\" title=\"Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location\">52.62639\u00b0N 22.04694\u00b0E<\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff \/ <span class=\"geo\">52.62639; 22.04694<\/span><\/span><span style=\"display:none\">\ufeff (<span class=\"fn org\">Treblinka (Poland)<\/span>)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:center;\"><sup id=\"cite_ref-yvTreb_247-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvTreb-247\">[234]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Gas_chambers\">Gas chambers<\/span><\/h4>\n<p>Usually, victims arrived by train.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9385_248-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9385-248\">[235]<\/a><\/sup> Almost all arrivals at the Operation Reinhard camps of Treblinka, Sobib\u00f3r, and Be\u0142\u017cec were sent directly to the gas chambers,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370_249-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370-249\">[236]<\/a><\/sup> with occasional individuals selected to replace dead workers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008243_250-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008243-250\">[237]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad198798_251-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad198798-251\">[238]<\/a><\/sup> At Auschwitz, the camp officials usually subjected individuals to selections and some of new arrivals deemed fit to work were sent to slave labour.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9382_252-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9382-252\">[239]<\/a><\/sup> Those selected for death at all camps were then told to undress and hand over their valuables to camp workers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003287.E2.80.93288_253-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003287.E2.80.93288-253\">[240]<\/a><\/sup> They were then herded naked into the gas chambers. In order to prevent panic, the victims were often told these were showers or delousing chambers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b173_254-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b173-254\">[241]<\/a><\/sup> The procedure at Che\u0142mno was slightly different, as the victims were put into a mobile gas van and asphyxiated while being driven to prepared burial pits in the nearby forests. There the corpses were unloaded and buried.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague76.E2.80.9385_255-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague76.E2.80.9385-255\">[242]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim,_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e2\/Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim%2C_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg\/220px-Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim%2C_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"179\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e2\/Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim%2C_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg\/330px-Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim%2C_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e2\/Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim%2C_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg\/440px-Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim%2C_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"3000\" data-file-height=\"2443\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Birkenau_Extermination_Camp_-_Oswiecim,_Poland_-_NARA_-_305904.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nPicture of Auschwitz\u2013Birkenau taken by an American surveillance plane, 13 September 1944.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Zyklon-B\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Zyklon-B\">Zyklon-B<\/a> were dropped into the chambers through vents,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162_256-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162-256\">[243]<\/a><\/sup> releasing toxic prussic acid, or <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hydrogen_cyanide\" title=\"Hydrogen cyanide\">hydrogen cyanide<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157_257-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157-257\">[244]<\/a><\/sup> Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to the commandant <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_H%C3%B6ss\" title=\"Rudolf H\u00f6ss\">Rudolf H\u00f6ss<\/a>, who estimated that about one-third of the victims died immediately.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170_258-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170-258\">[245]<\/a><\/sup> Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: \"Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163_259-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163-259\">[246]<\/a><\/sup> The gas was then pumped out, the bodies were removed, gold fillings in their teeth were extracted, and women's hair was cut.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170.E2.80.93171_260-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170.E2.80.93171-260\">[247]<\/a><\/sup> The work was done by the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderkommando\" title=\"Sonderkommando\">Sonderkommando<\/a>,<\/i> or work groups of Jewish prisoners.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b172_261-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b172-261\">[248]<\/a><\/sup> At first at Auschwitz, the bodies were buried in deep pits and covered with lime, but between September and November 1942, on the orders of Himmler, they were dug up and burned. In early 1943, new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163.E2.80.93164_262-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163.E2.80.93164-262\">[249]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>At the three Reinhard camps the victims were killed by the exhaust fumes of stationary diesel engines.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370_249-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370-249\">[236]<\/a><\/sup> Gold fillings were pulled from the corpses before burial, but the women's hair was cut before death. At Treblinka, in order to calm the arriving victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199883.E2.80.9384_263-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199883.E2.80.9384-263\">[250]<\/a><\/sup> Majdanek used Zyklon-B gas in its gas chambers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199884.E2.80.9385_264-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199884.E2.80.9385-264\">[251]<\/a><\/sup> In contrast to Auschwitz, the three Reinhard camps were quite small.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330_265-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330-265\">[252]<\/a><\/sup> At these camps, most of the initial victims were buried in pits, but in 1942 in order to hide the evidence of the extermination, the exhumation of the bodies and cremation of them was begun. Sobib\u00f3r and Be\u0142\u017cec began the process in late 1942 but Treblinka did not start until March 1943. The bodies were burned in open fireplaces and the remaining bones were crushed into powder.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987170.E2.80.93171_266-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987170.E2.80.93171-266\">[253]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Jewish_resistance\">Jewish resistance<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe\" title=\"Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe\">Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Ghetto_Vilinus.gif\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/a\/a8\/Ghetto_Vilinus.gif\/170px-Ghetto_Vilinus.gif\" width=\"170\" height=\"125\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/a\/a8\/Ghetto_Vilinus.gif\/255px-Ghetto_Vilinus.gif 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/a\/a8\/Ghetto_Vilinus.gif\/340px-Ghetto_Vilinus.gif 2x\" data-file-width=\"472\" data-file-height=\"346\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Ghetto_Vilinus.gif\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nArmed members of the Jewish resistance, the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fareynikte_Partizaner_Organizatsye\" title=\"Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye\">Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye<\/a><\/i>, active in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Vilnius_Ghetto\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Vilnius Ghetto\">Vilnius Ghetto<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002219_267-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002219-267\">[254]<\/a><\/sup><\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Sara_Knout_3.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/a\/ae\/Sara_Knout_3.jpg\/170px-Sara_Knout_3.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"253\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/a\/ae\/Sara_Knout_3.jpg\/255px-Sara_Knout_3.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/a\/ae\/Sara_Knout_3.jpg\/340px-Sara_Knout_3.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"500\" data-file-height=\"743\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Sara_Knout_3.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\n<a href=\"\/wiki\/Ariadna_Scriabina\" title=\"Ariadna Scriabina\">Ariadna Scriabina<\/a>, (a convert to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Judaism\" title=\"Judaism\">Judaism<\/a> and a daughter of the Russian composer <a href=\"\/wiki\/Alexander_Scriabin\" title=\"Alexander Scriabin\">Alexander Scriabin<\/a>), co-founded the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Arm%C3%A9e_Juive\" title=\"Arm\u00e9e Juive\">Arm\u00e9e Juive<\/a>, becoming a leader of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Resistance\" title=\"French Resistance\">French Resistance<\/a>. She was killed by the pro-Nazi <a href=\"\/wiki\/Milice\" title=\"Milice\">milice<\/a> in 1944. She was posthumously awarded the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Croix_de_guerre\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Croix de guerre\">Croix de guerre<\/a> and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/M%C3%A9daille_de_la_R%C3%A9sistance\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"M\u00e9daille de la R\u00e9sistance\">M\u00e9daille de la R\u00e9sistance<\/a>.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Peter_Longerich\" title=\"Peter Longerich\">Peter Longerich<\/a> observes that in the Polish ghettos by the end of 1942 that \"there was practically no resistance.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010340.E2.80.93341_268-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010340.E2.80.93341-268\">[255]<\/a><\/sup> He argues that one of the reasons for this were that there were no organized groups until the early part of 1942.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341_269-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341-269\">[256]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Raul_Hilberg\" title=\"Raul Hilberg\">Raul Hilberg<\/a> accounts for this compliant attitude by evoking the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jews\" title=\"Persecution of Jews\">history of Jewish persecution<\/a>: as had been the case before in history, simply appealing to their oppressors, and complying with orders, would hopefully avoid inflaming the situation and so mitigate the damage until the onslaught abated.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128_270-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128-270\">[257]<\/a><\/sup> They were \"caught in the straitjacket of their history\", and the realisation that this time was different came too late.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128_270-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128-270\">[257]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Discussing the case of Warsaw, Timothy Snyder notes in a similar vein that it was only during the three months after the massive deportations of July\u2013September 1942 that general agreement on the need for armed resistance was reached.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010283_271-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010283-271\">[258]<\/a><\/sup> By the time of the biggest act of armed resistance, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto_uprising\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto uprising\">Warsaw Ghetto uprising<\/a> of spring 1943, only a small minority of Polish Jews were still alive.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341_269-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341-269\">[256]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Henri_Michel\" title=\"Henri Michel\">Henri Michel<\/a> argues that resistance consisted not only of physical opposition, but of any activity that gave the Jews dignity and humanity in humiliating and inhumane conditions. Yehuda Bauer restricts Michel's definition somewhat, making resistance as actions that opposed somehow the German directives, laws, or conduct.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1997117_272-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1997117-272\">[259]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<blockquote class=\"templatequote\">\n<p>In every ghetto, in every deportation train, in every labour camp, even in the death camps, the will to resist was strong, and took many forms: fighting with sticks and knives, individual acts of defiance and protest, the courage of obtaining food under the threat of death, the nobility of refusing to allow the Germans their final wish to gloat over panic and despair. Even passivity was a form of courage. ... To die with dignity was in itself courageous. To resist the dehumanizing, brutalizing force of evil, to refuse to be abased to the level of animals, to live through the torment, to outlive the tormentors, these too were courageous. Merely to give a witness by one's own testimony was, in the end, to contribute to a moral victory. Simply to survive was a victory of the human spirit.<\/p>\n<div class=\"templatequotecite\"><cite>\u2014\u2009Martin Gilbert, <i>The Holocaust<\/i><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985828_273-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985828-273\">[260]<\/a><\/sup><\/cite><\/div>\n<\/blockquote>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/0e\/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg\/170px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"239\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/0e\/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg\/255px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/0e\/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg\/340px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2138\" data-file-height=\"3000\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nCaptured members of the Jewish resistance, Warsaw Ghetto, 1943.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Hilberg cautions against overstating the extent of Jewish resistance, or using all-encompassing definitions of it like that deployed by Gilbert; aruging that by turning isolated incidents into resistance, it obscures the underlying German motivations and elevates the slaughter of innocent people into some kind of battle. He also contends that by ascribing to every European Jew acts of resistance, it diminishes the heroism of those who to active measures to resist the Germans.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996126.E2.80.93137_274-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996126.E2.80.93137-274\">[261]<\/a><\/sup> Finally he asserts that the blending of the passive majority with the active few is a way of deflecting questions about the survival strategies and leadership of the Jewish community.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996137_275-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996137-275\">[262]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Armed_resistance\">Armed resistance<\/span><\/h4>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe\" title=\"Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe\">Organized uprisings<\/a> took place in at least 19 ghettos as well as some of the camps. Groups such as the Jewish Fighting Organization in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw Ghetto<\/a>, or the <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_Partisan_Organization\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"United Partisan Organization\">United Partisan Organization<\/a> in Vilna, were formed to resist through armed revolts or resistance.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201682.E2.80.9385_276-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201682.E2.80.9385-276\">[263]<\/a><\/sup> Over a hundred revolts and uprisings are known to have occurred in ghettos and other locations in Eastern Europe.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_277-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291-277\">[264]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The best known example of Jewish armed resistance was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_277-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291-277\">[264]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199894_278-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199894-278\">[265]<\/a><\/sup> when around a thousand poorly armed Jewish fighters<sup id=\"cite_ref-280\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-280\">[n]<\/a><\/sup> held the SS off for four weeks before the German's superior forces defeated them.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201683.E2.80.9384_281-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201683.E2.80.9384-281\">[267]<\/a><\/sup> According to Polish and Jewish accounts, hundreds or thousands of Germans were killed,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGutman1994243_282-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGutman1994243-282\">[268]<\/a><\/sup> while the Germans reported 16 dead.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200983_283-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200983-283\">[269]<\/a><\/sup> The Germans reported around 14,000 Jews killed<sup id=\"cite_ref-285\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-285\">[o]<\/a><\/sup> and between 53,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016636_286-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016636-286\">[271]<\/a><\/sup> and 56,000 deported.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209_279-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209-279\">[266]<\/a><\/sup> A revolt in the Treblinka extermination camp occurred on 2 August 1943, when the inmates revolted.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987286_287-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987286-287\">[272]<\/a><\/sup> They killed five or six guards and set fire to a few camp buildings,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987293.E2.80.93294_288-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987293.E2.80.93294-288\">[273]<\/a><\/sup> Of the approximately 850 prisoners in the camp,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987298_289-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987298-289\">[274]<\/a><\/sup> only around 350 or so escaped the immediate area of the camp, and 70 of those survived the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-290\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-290\">[p]<\/a><\/sup> The camp itself was demolished soon after the revolt by the Germans, who used recaptured prisoners for the work before killing them.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel198899_291-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel198899-291\">[275]<\/a><\/sup> Another uprising occurred in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_Uprising\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto Uprising\">Bia\u0142ystok Ghettoon<\/a> 16 August 1943. The revolt began when the Germans announced mass deportations and a group of Jewish insurgents revolted. The fighting lasted five days, but the fighters were defeated by the superior numbers of the Germans.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199895.E2.80.9396_292-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199895.E2.80.9396-292\">[276]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>On 14 October 1943, Jewish prisoners in Sobib\u00f3r, including Jewish Soviet prisoners of war, attempted an escape.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199898_293-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199898-293\">[277]<\/a><\/sup> The prisoners killed 11 German <a href=\"\/wiki\/SS\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"SS\">SS<\/a> officers and a couple of Ukranian camp guards, but the inmates were forced to run.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987337_294-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987337-294\">[278]<\/a><\/sup> About 300 prisoners escaped, but 100 were recaptured and shot soon after escaping.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987341_295-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987341-295\">[279]<\/a><\/sup> About 50 survived the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199898_293-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199898-293\">[277]<\/a><\/sup> In October 1944, Jewish <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderkommando\" title=\"Sonderkommando\">Sonderkommandos<\/a><\/i> at Auschwitz attacked their guards and blew up Crematorium IV with explosives that had been smuggled in. Three German guards were killed during the uprising, one of whom was stuffed into an oven. The Sonderkommandos attempted a mass breakout, but all were killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTERees2005256.3D257_296-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTERees2005256.3D257-296\">[280]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Partisan_and_resistance_groups\">Partisan and resistance groups<\/span><\/h4>\n<p>While there were no independent Jewish resistance groups during the war, many joined other active partisan groups. Estimates of total Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from a low of 20,000 to a high of 100,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKennedy2007780_297-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKennedy2007780-297\">[281]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In the occupied Polish and Soviet territories, thousands of Jews fled into the swamps or forests and joined the partisans,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100.E2.80.93101_298-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100.E2.80.93101-298\">[282]<\/a><\/sup> although the partisan movements did not always welcome them.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016648_299-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016648-299\">[283]<\/a><\/sup> An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jews joined the Soviet partisan movement.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTETec2001546_300-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTETec2001546-300\">[284]<\/a><\/sup> One of the famous Jewish partisan groups was the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bielski_partisans\" title=\"Bielski partisans\">Bielski partisans<\/a> in Belarus, which was led by the Bielski brothers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel_301-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel-301\">[285]<\/a><\/sup> Some of the fighters in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Uprising\" title=\"Warsaw Uprising\">Warsaw Uprising<\/a> of 1944 had participated in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. Jews also joined the Polish <a href=\"\/wiki\/Armia_Krajowa\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Armia Krajowa\">Home Army<\/a> or other Polish forces. According to Timothy Snyder, \"more Jews fought in the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944 than in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April 1943\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010302_302-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010302-302\">[286]<\/a><\/sup> Joining the partisans was an option only for the young and the fit who were willing to leave their families. Many Jewish families preferred to die together rather than be separated.<\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Jews\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"French Jews\">French Jews<\/a> were also highly active in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Resistance\" title=\"French Resistance\">French Resistance<\/a>, with the percentage of Jews belonging to resistance groups being many times their percentage of the population.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009212_303-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009212-303\">[287]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Zionism\" title=\"Zionism\">Zionist<\/a> Jews formed the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Armee_Juive\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Armee Juive\">Armee Juive<\/a><\/i> (Jewish Army), which participated in armed resistance under a Zionist flag, smuggled Jews out of the country,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993274_304-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993274-304\">[288]<\/a><\/sup> and participated in the liberation of Paris and other cities.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993275_305-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993275-305\">[289]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Jews_in_the_Allied_forces\">Jews in the Allied forces<\/span><\/h4>\n<p>As many as 1.4 million Jewish soldiers fought in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Allies_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Allies of World War II\">Allied<\/a> armies.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELador-Lederer198075_note_15_306-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELador-Lederer198075_note_15-306\">[290]<\/a><\/sup> including 500,000 in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Red_Army\" title=\"Red Army\">Red Army<\/a>, 550,000 in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Armed_Forces\" title=\"United States Armed Forces\">U.S. Army<\/a>, 100,000 in the Polish army and 30,000 in the British army.<sup id=\"cite_ref-307\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-307\">[291]<\/a><\/sup> About 200,000 Jewish soldiers serving in the Red Army died in the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPinkus1990261_308-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPinkus1990261-308\">[292]<\/a><\/sup> The <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Brigade\" title=\"Jewish Brigade\">Jewish Brigade<\/a>, a unit of 5,000 Jewish volunteers from the <a href=\"\/wiki\/British_Mandate_of_Palestine\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"British Mandate of Palestine\">British Mandate of Palestine<\/a>, fought in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/British_Army\" title=\"British Army\">British Army<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELaqueur2001351_309-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELaqueur2001351-309\">[293]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Medical_experimentation\">Medical experimentation<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Nazi human experimentation<\/a><\/div>\n<p>The SS used the inmates of both the concentration and extermination camps as subjects of medical experiments. Both Jewish and non-Jewish prisoners were used for a variety of experiments.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000229.E2.80.93230_310-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000229.E2.80.93230-310\">[294]<\/a><\/sup> The most notorious of these physicians was <a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Mengele\" title=\"Josef Mengele\">Josef Mengele<\/a>, who worked in Auschwitz. His experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change their eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, and amputations and other surgeries.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000384_311-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000384-311\">[295]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-313\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-313\">[q]<\/a><\/sup> Other experiments took place at <a href=\"\/wiki\/Buchenwald_concentration_camp\" title=\"Buchenwald concentration camp\">Buchenwald<\/a>, Dachau, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Natzweiler_concentration_camp\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Natzweiler concentration camp\">Natzweiler<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Neuengamme_concentration_camp\" title=\"Neuengamme concentration camp\">Neuengamme<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp\" title=\"Ravensbr\u00fcck concentration camp\">Ravensbr\u00fcck<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Sachsenhausen concentration camp\">Sachsenhausen<\/a>, and others. Some of the experiments dealt with sterilization of men and women, the treatment of war wounds, ways to counteract chemical weapons, research into new vaccines and drugs, and survival of harsh conditions. These experiments violated rules requiring consent for human experimentation and were conducted without regard to medical ethics. At least 7000, and likely more, prisoners were subjected to these experiments, and most died either during the experiments or afterwards.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410.E2.80.93414_314-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410.E2.80.93414-314\">[297]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Climax\">Climax<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26,_Budapest,_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/3d\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26%2C_Budapest%2C_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg\/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26%2C_Budapest%2C_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"142\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/3d\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26%2C_Budapest%2C_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg\/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26%2C_Budapest%2C_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/3d\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26%2C_Budapest%2C_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg\/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26%2C_Budapest%2C_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"796\" data-file-height=\"512\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-680-8285A-26,_Budapest,_Festnahme_von_Juden.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nBudapest, Hungary\u2014Hungarian and German soldiers drive arrested Jews into the municipal theatre. October 1944.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Most of the Jewish ghettos of <a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Government\" title=\"General Government\">General Government<\/a> were liquidated in 1942\u20131943, and their populations shipped to the camps for extermination.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256.E2.80.93257_315-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256.E2.80.93257-315\">[298]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330.E2.80.93339.2C_375.E2.80.93379_316-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330.E2.80.93339.2C_375.E2.80.93379-316\">[299]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-318\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-318\">[r]<\/a><\/sup> About 42,000 Jews were shot during the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Harvest_Festival\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Operation Harvest Festival\">Operation Harvest Festival<\/a> on 3\u20134 November 1943.<sup id=\"cite_ref-319\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-319\">[301]<\/a><\/sup> At the same time, rail shipments arrived regularly from western and southern Europe at the extermination camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010360.E2.80.93373.2C_386.E2.80.93389.2C_390.E2.80.93396_320-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010360.E2.80.93373.2C_386.E2.80.93389.2C_390.E2.80.93396-320\">[302]<\/a><\/sup> Few Jews were shipped from the occupied Soviet territories to the camps: the killing of Jews in this zone was mostly left in the hands of the SS, aided by locally recruited auxiliaries.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010345.E2.80.93353_321-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010345.E2.80.93353-321\">[303]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-323\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-323\">[s]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Shipments of Jews to the camps had priority over anything but the army's needs on the German railways, and continued even in the face of the increasingly dire military situation at the end of 1942<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990376.E2.80.93378_324-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990376.E2.80.93378-324\">[305]<\/a><\/sup> Army leaders and economic managers complained about this diversion of resources and at the killing of skilled Jewish workers;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKwiet200461.2C_69.E2.80.9371.2C_76.E2.80.9377_325-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKwiet200461.2C_69.E2.80.9371.2C_76.E2.80.9377-325\">[306]<\/a><\/sup> however, Nazi leaders rated ideological imperatives above economic considerations.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKwiet200477.E2.80.9378_326-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKwiet200477.E2.80.9378-326\">[307]<\/a><\/sup> In fact, many of the war industries using slave labour were more productive when SS supervision was removed;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAllen200217_327-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAllen200217-327\">[308]<\/a><\/sup> otherwise their brutality proved counterproductive.<\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f2\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"167\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f2\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f2\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2253\" data-file-height=\"1707\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nJewish women and children from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Carpatho-Ruthenia\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Carpatho-Ruthenia\">Carpatho-Ruthenia<\/a> after their arrival at the Auschwitz death camp. May\/June 1944.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>By 1943, it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer1998536.E2.80.93538_328-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer1998536.E2.80.93538-328\">[309]<\/a><\/sup> In October 1943, Himmler gave a speech to senior Nazi Party officials gathered in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pozna%C5%84\" title=\"Pozna\u0144\">Pozna\u0144<\/a>. Here he came closer than ever before to stating explicitly his intent to exterminate the Jews of Europe:<\/p>\n<blockquote class=\"templatequote\">\n<p>I am now referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. It's one of those things that is easily said: \"The Jewish people are being exterminated\", says every party member, \"this is very obvious, it's in our program, elimination of the Jews, extermination, we're doing it, hah, a small matter.\" ... The hard decision had to be made that <i>this people should be caused to disappear from earth<\/i>\u2026Perhaps, at a much later time, we can consider whether we should say something more about this to the German people. I myself believe that it is better for us\u2014us together\u2014to have borne this for our people, that we have taken the responsibility for it on ourselves (the responsibility for an act, not just for an idea), and that we should now take this secret with us to the grave.<\/p>\n<div class=\"templatequotecite\"><cite>\u2014\u2009Heinrich Himmler, \"Secret Address to SS Officers\" 10 June 1943, quoted in Berel Lang <i>Act and Idea in the Nazi Genocide<\/i><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELang20033_329-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELang20033-329\">[310]<\/a><\/sup><\/cite><\/div>\n<\/blockquote>\n<p>The scale of extermination slackened somewhat at the beginning of 1944 once the ghettos in occupied Poland were emptied,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109_330-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109-330\">[311]<\/a><\/sup> but on 19 March 1944, Hitler ordered the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Margarethe\" title=\"Operation Margarethe\">military occupation of Hungary<\/a>, and dispatched Eichmann to Budapest to supervise the deportation of Hungarian Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200295_331-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200295-331\">[312]<\/a><\/sup> More than 470,000 Hungarian Jews were shipped to Auschwitz after the occupation.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009222.E2.80.93223_332-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009222.E2.80.93223-332\">[313]<\/a><\/sup> During the deportations in May and June 1944,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2008343.E2.80.93348_333-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2008343.E2.80.93348-333\">[314]<\/a><\/sup> up to 6,000 people were being gassed every day at Auschwitz.<sup id=\"cite_ref-334\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-334\">[315]<\/a><\/sup> During the Hungarian deportations, there were efforts to negotiate with the Allies to rescue Jews; at one point there was an attempt by Eichmann to exchange one million Jews for 10,000 trucks<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377_335-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377-335\">[316]<\/a><\/sup>\u2014the so-called \"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Blood_for_goods\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Blood for goods\">blood for goods<\/a>\" proposal<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201031_336-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201031-336\">[317]<\/a><\/sup> was made\u2014but there was no real possibility of such a deal being struck on this scale.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377_335-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377-335\">[316]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Escapes_and_early_Allied_responses\">Escapes and early Allied responses<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/33\/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf\/page1-170px-The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"254\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/33\/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf\/page1-255px-The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/3\/33\/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf\/page1-340px-The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"856\" data-file-height=\"1281\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\n\"The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland\", by the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_government-in-exile\" title=\"Polish government-in-exile\">Polish government-in-exile<\/a> addressed to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Allies_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Allies of World War II\">wartime allies<\/a> of the then-<a href=\"\/wiki\/Declaration_by_United_Nations\" title=\"Declaration by United Nations\">United Nations<\/a>, 1942.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_New_York_Times#World_War_II\" title=\"The New York Times\">The New York Times \u00a7 World War II<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jan_Karski\" title=\"Jan Karski\">Jan Karski<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_government-in-exile\" title=\"Polish government-in-exile\">Polish government-in-exile<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Escapes from the camps were few, but not unknown.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015532.E2.80.93533_337-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015532.E2.80.93533-337\">[318]<\/a><\/sup> Assisting a Jew in any way within Nazi-occupied Poland was life-threatening as a result decrees ordering the death penalty for hiding a Jew, later expanded to include the death penalty for any aid to Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPaldiel1993184_338-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPaldiel1993184-338\">[319]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In February 1942, an escapee from Che\u0142mno, Jacob Grojanowski, reached the Warsaw Ghetto, where he gave detailed information about the camp to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Oyneg_Shabbos_(group)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Oyneg Shabbos (group)\">Oneg Shabbat<\/a> group. His report, which became known as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Grojanowski_Report\" title=\"Grojanowski Report\">Grojanowski Report<\/a>, was smuggled out of the ghetto and reached London by June 1942.<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvChelmno-225\">[215]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-339\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-339\">[320]<\/a><\/sup> In the meantime, by 1 February, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Office_of_War_Information\" title=\"United States Office of War Information\">United States Office of War Information<\/a> had decided not to release information about the extermination of the Jews because it was felt that it would mislead the public into thinking the war was simply a Jewish problem.<sup id=\"cite_ref-340\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-340\">[321]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>After being smuggled into the Warsaw ghetto and infiltrating Be\u0142\u017cec, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jan_Karski\" title=\"Jan Karski\">Jan Karski<\/a> reported to Allies in 1942 on the situation in Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the mass killings.<sup id=\"cite_ref-341\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-341\">[322]<\/a><\/sup> In December 1942, the Polish Foreign Minister in-exile sent a report to all Allied governments which detailed liquidation of the ghettos and denounced the mass extermination the Jewish population.<sup id=\"cite_ref-342\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-342\">[323]<\/a><\/sup> This report and the Polish Government's lobbying efforts triggered the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Joint_Declaration_by_Members_of_the_United_Nations\" title=\"Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations\">Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations<\/a> of 17 December 1942 which made public and condemned the mass extermination of the Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland.<sup id=\"cite_ref-343\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-343\">[324]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Arnost_Rosin,_Josef_Weiss,_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/ef\/Arnost_Rosin%2C_Josef_Weiss%2C_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg\/220px-Arnost_Rosin%2C_Josef_Weiss%2C_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"136\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/ef\/Arnost_Rosin%2C_Josef_Weiss%2C_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg\/330px-Arnost_Rosin%2C_Josef_Weiss%2C_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/e\/ef\/Arnost_Rosin%2C_Josef_Weiss%2C_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"389\" data-file-height=\"240\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Arnost_Rosin,_Josef_Weiss,_Rudolf_Vrba.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\n<a href=\"\/wiki\/Bratislava\" title=\"Bratislava\">Bratislava<\/a>, June\u2013July 1944. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Vrba\" title=\"Rudolf Vrba\">Rudolf Vrba<\/a> (right) escaped from Auschwitz on 7 April 1944. Arnost Rosin (left), escaped on 27 May 1944.<sup id=\"cite_ref-ConwayWiesen_344-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ConwayWiesen-344\">[325]<\/a><\/sup><\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Two Jews, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Vrba\" title=\"Rudolf Vrba\">Rudolf Vrba<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Wetzler\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Alfred Wetzler\">Alfred Wetzler<\/a>, escaped from Auschwitz in April 1944, eventually reaching <a href=\"\/wiki\/Slovakia\" title=\"Slovakia\">Slovakia<\/a>. Their document about the mass murder at Auschwitz became known as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Vrba-Wetzler_report\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Vrba-Wetzler report\">Vrba-Wetzler report<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKarny1998553.E2.80.93556_345-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKarny1998553.E2.80.93556-345\">[326]<\/a><\/sup> The <i>New York Times<\/i> published material from the Vrba-Wetzler report in June and July 1944.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Brigham19440703_346-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Brigham19440703-346\">[327]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-Brigham19440706_347-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Brigham19440706-347\">[328]<\/a><\/sup> The subsequent pressure persuaded <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mikl%C3%B3s_Horthy\" title=\"Mikl\u00f3s Horthy\">Mikl\u00f3s Horthy<\/a> to bring the deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz to a halt on 9 July, saving up to 200,000 Jews from death.<sup id=\"cite_ref-348\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-348\">[329]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Death_marches_.281944.E2.80.931945.29\">Death marches (1944\u20131945)<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Death_marches_(Holocaust)\" title=\"Death marches (Holocaust)\">Death marches (Holocaust)<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/b\/b0\/Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG\/220px-Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG\" width=\"220\" height=\"153\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/b\/b0\/Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG\/330px-Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/b\/b0\/Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG\/440px-Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG 2x\" data-file-width=\"1632\" data-file-height=\"1138\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Pomnik_mogila_ofiar_marszu_smierci_Wodzislaw_Slaski.JPG\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nGrave and Memorial in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wodzis%C5%82aw\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Wodzis\u0142aw\">Wodzis\u0142aw<\/a> of the most infamous Death march from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz Birkenau<\/a> to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wodzis%C5%82aw_%C5%9Al%C4%85ski\" title=\"Wodzis\u0142aw \u015al\u0105ski\">Wodzis\u0142aw \u015al\u0105ski<\/a>.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>By mid-1944, those Jewish communities within easy reach of the Nazi regime had been largely exterminated,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109_330-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109-330\">[311]<\/a><\/sup> in proportions ranging from about 25 percent in France<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219_349-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219-349\">[330]<\/a><\/sup> to more than 90 percent in Poland.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_350-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488-350\">[331]<\/a><\/sup> On 5 May, Himmler claimed in a speech that \"the Jewish question has in general been solved in Germany and in the countries occupied by Germany\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695_351-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695-351\">[332]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the camps in eastern Poland were closed down, with surviving inmates shipped to camps closer to Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009227.E2.80.93228_352-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009227.E2.80.93228-352\">[333]<\/a><\/sup> Efforts were made to conceal evidence of what had happened in the camps and in the mass shootings. The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and the corpses cremated.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410.E2.80.93412_353-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410.E2.80.93412-353\">[334]<\/a><\/sup> Local commanders continued to kill Jews, and to shuttle them from camp to camp by forced \"death marches\" until the last weeks of the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-MapUSHMM_354-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-MapUSHMM-354\">[335]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-356\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-356\">[t]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Already sick after months or years of violence and starvation, prisoners were forced to march out of the camps. Some were marched to train stations and then transported for days at a time without food or shelter in open freight cars and forced to march again at the other end to the new camp. Others were marched the entire distance to the new camp. Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. Around 250,000 Jews died during these marches.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007648.E2.80.93650_357-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007648.E2.80.93650-357\">[337]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Liberation\">Liberation<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Berlin\" title=\"Battle of Berlin\">Battle of Berlin<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Death_of_Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Death of Adolf Hitler\">Death of Adolf Hitler<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Prague_Offensive\" title=\"Prague Offensive\">Prague Offensive<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Victory_in_Europe_Day\" title=\"Victory in Europe Day\">Victory in Europe Day<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen,_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde,_1945.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e5\/Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen%2C_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde%2C_1945.jpg\/220px-Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen%2C_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde%2C_1945.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"144\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e5\/Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen%2C_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde%2C_1945.jpg\/330px-Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen%2C_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde%2C_1945.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e5\/Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen%2C_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde%2C_1945.jpg\/440px-Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen%2C_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde%2C_1945.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"640\" data-file-height=\"418\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Eines_von_3_Massengr%C3%A4bern_in_Bergen-Belsen,_so_wie_es_von_den_Befreiern_vorgefunden_wurde,_1945.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nA grave inside Bergen-Belsen.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The first major camp to be encountered by Allied troops, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a>, was discovered by the advancing Soviets on 25 July 1944.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165_358-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165-358\">[338]<\/a><\/sup> Treblinka, Sobib\u00f3r, and Be\u0142\u017cec were never liberated, but were destroyed by the Nazis in 1943.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411_359-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411-359\">[339]<\/a><\/sup> Auschwitz was liberated, also by the Soviets, on 27 January 1945;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283_360-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283-360\">[340]<\/a><\/sup> Buchenwald by the Americans on 11 April;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297_361-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297-361\">[341]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Bergen-Belsen concentration camp\">Bergen-Belsen<\/a> was liberated by the British on 15 April;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340_362-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340-362\">[342]<\/a><\/sup> Dachau was liberated by the Americans on 29 April;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798_363-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798-363\">[343]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp\" title=\"Ravensbr\u00fcck concentration camp\">Ravensbr\u00fcck<\/a> was liberated by the Soviets on 30 April;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577_364-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577-364\">[344]<\/a><\/sup> Mauthausen was liberated by the Americans on 5 May;<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808.E2.80.93809_365-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808.E2.80.93809-365\">[345]<\/a><\/sup> and the Red Cross took control of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp\" title=\"Theresienstadt concentration camp\">Theresienstadt<\/a> on 4 May,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810_366-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810-366\">[346]<\/a><\/sup> some days before the Soviets arrived.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762_367-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762-367\">[347]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e7\/Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg\/220px-Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"161\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e7\/Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg\/330px-Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e7\/Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg\/440px-Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2843\" data-file-height=\"2087\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nStarving prisoners in Mauthausen camp liberated on 5 May 1945.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The Soviets found 7,600 inmates in Auschwitz.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289_368-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289-368\">[348]<\/a><\/sup> Some 60,000 prisoners were discovered at Bergen-Belsen by the British <a href=\"\/wiki\/11th_Armoured_Division_(United_Kingdom)\" title=\"11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)\">11th Armoured Division<\/a>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-11thUSHMM_369-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-11thUSHMM-369\">[349]<\/a><\/sup> 13,000 corpses lay unburied, and another 10,000 died from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Typhus\" title=\"Typhus\">typhus<\/a> or malnutrition over the following weeks.<sup id=\"cite_ref-BBUSHMM_370-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-BBUSHMM-370\">[350]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The BBC's <a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Dimbleby\" title=\"Richard Dimbleby\">Richard Dimbleby<\/a> described the scenes that greeted him and the British Army at Belsen:<\/p>\n<blockquote class=\"templatequote\">\n<p>Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which\u2026 The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them\u2026 Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live\u2026 A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms\u2026 He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days. This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life.<\/p>\n<div class=\"templatequotecite\"><cite>\u2014\u2009Richard Dimbleby, 1945<sup id=\"cite_ref-371\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-371\">[351]<\/a><\/sup><\/cite><\/div>\n<\/blockquote>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Responses_to_the_Holocaust\">Responses to the Holocaust<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_response_to_the_Holocaust\" title=\"International response to the Holocaust\">International response to the Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Perpetrator.27s_motivations\">Perpetrator's motivations<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_war_crimes\" title=\"German war crimes\">German war crimes<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht\" title=\"War crimes of the Wehrmacht\">War crimes of the Wehrmacht<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Responsibility for the Holocaust\">Responsibility for the Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<p>In his 1965 essay \"Command and Compliance\", historian Hans Buchheim wrote there was no coercion to murder Jews and others, and all who committed such actions did so out of free will.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373_372-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373-372\">[352]<\/a><\/sup> Buchheim wrote that the chances to avoid participating in killing Jews were available for perpetrators, although they did not often admit that after the war,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373_372-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373-372\">[352]<\/a><\/sup> and that he found no evidence that SS men who refused to carry out criminal orders were sent to concentration camps or executed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381_373-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381-373\">[353]<\/a><\/sup> Moreover, <i>SS<\/i> rules prohibited acts of gratuitous sadism and acts of sadism were taken on the individual initiative of those who were either especially cruel or who wished to prove themselves ardent Nazis.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373_372-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373-372\">[352]<\/a><\/sup> Finally, he argued that those who committed crimes did so because they wished to conform to the values of the group and were afraid of being branded \"weak\" by their colleagues.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386.E2.80.93387_374-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386.E2.80.93387-374\">[354]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In his 1992 monograph <i>Ordinary Men<\/i>, the historian <a href=\"\/wiki\/Christopher_Browning\" title=\"Christopher Browning\">Christopher Browning<\/a> examined the deeds of German <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reserve_Police_Battalion_101\" title=\"Reserve Police Battalion 101\">Reserve Police Battalion 101<\/a>, used for massacres and round-ups of Jews as well as deportations to the death camps. The members of the battalion were middle-aged men of working-class background who were too old for regular military duty.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning199844.E2.80.9348_375-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning199844.E2.80.9348-375\">[355]<\/a><\/sup> They were given no special training for genocide and at first,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998183.E2.80.93184_376-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998183.E2.80.93184-376\">[356]<\/a><\/sup> the commander gave his men the choice of opting out of direct participation in the killing of Jews if they found it too unpleasant. The majority chose not to opt out; fewer than 12 men, out of a battalion of 500 did so on the first occasion.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857_377-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857-377\">[357]<\/a><\/sup> Browning argued that the men of the battalion killed out of peer pressure, not blood-lust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998171.E2.80.93189_378-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998171.E2.80.93189-378\">[358]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Historian Sergei Kudryashov studied the guards trained at the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Trawniki_concentration_camp#Key_role_of_Trawniki_men_in_the_Final_Solution\" title=\"Trawniki concentration camp\">Trawniki SS camp division<\/a> (\"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Trawniki_men\" title=\"Trawniki men\">Trawniki men<\/a>\" or \"Trawniki guards\"),<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004227_379-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004227-379\">[359]<\/a><\/sup> who provided personnel for the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation Reinhard<\/a> death camps and other concentration camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004230_380-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004230-380\">[360]<\/a><\/sup> Most of them were former Red Army soldiers who volunteered to join the <i>SS<\/i> in order to get out of the POW camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004232.E2.80.93233_381-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004232.E2.80.93233-381\">[361]<\/a><\/sup> The vast majority carried out the SS's expectations of how to treat Jews,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234_382-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234-382\">[362]<\/a><\/sup> and most personally killed Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234.E2.80.93235_383-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234.E2.80.93235-383\">[363]<\/a><\/sup> Agreeing with Browning, Kudryashov argued that the Trawniki men were examples of ordinary people becoming willing killers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004226_384-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004226-384\">[364]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Germans usually justified the <i>Einsatzgruppen'<\/i>s massacres on the grounds of anti-Bolshevik, anti-partisan or anti-bandit operations, but the historian <a href=\"\/wiki\/Andreas_Hillgruber\" title=\"Andreas Hillgruber\">Andreas Hillgruber<\/a> aruges that this was merely an excuse for the German Army's considerable involvement in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_in_Russia\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Holocaust in Russia\">Holocaust in Russia<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29._385-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29.-385\">[365]<\/a><\/sup> Hillgruber maintained that those German generals who claimed that the <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> were a necessary anti-partisan response were lying.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29._385-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29.-385\">[365]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%BCrgen_F%C3%B6rster\" title=\"J\u00fcrgen F\u00f6rster\">J\u00fcrgen F\u00f6rster<\/a> agrees, and argued that the <i>Wehrmacht<\/i> played a key role in the Holocaust. He said it is wrong to describe the Holocaust as solely the work of the SS with the <i>Wehrmacht<\/i> as a passive and disapproving bystander.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998280_386-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998280-386\">[366]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Army co-operation with the SS in anti-Bolshevik, anti-partisan and anti-Jewish operations was close and intensive. After a 1941 SS \"anti-partisan\" operation which killed over 14,000 Jews and only 1000 partisans, General <a href=\"\/wiki\/Max_von_Schenckendorff\" title=\"Max von Schenckendorff\">Max von Schenckendorff<\/a>, who commanded the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Army_Group_Center_Rear_Area\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Army Group Center Rear Area\">Army Group Center Rear Area<\/a>, ordered that all <i>Wehrmacht<\/i> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Security_Division_(Germany)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Security Division (Germany)\">security divisions<\/a> should emulate this example when on anti-partisan duty, and organized a joint SS-<i>Wehrmacht<\/i> seminar on how best to kill Jews. The event, that became known as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mogilev_Conference\" title=\"Mogilev Conference\">Mogilev Conference<\/a>, ended with a German unit killing Jews as a demonstration.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998276-277_387-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998276-277-387\">[367]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"German_public\">German public<\/span><\/h3>\n<p>In his 1983 book, <i>Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich<\/i>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ian_Kershaw\" title=\"Ian Kershaw\">Ian Kershaw<\/a> examined everyday life in Bavaria during the Nazi period. Kershaw argued that the most common viewpoint of Bavarians was indifference towards the persecution of Jews. Kershaw argued that most Bavarians were vaguely aware of the genocide, but were vastly more concerned about the war than the \"Final Solution\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789.E2.80.9390_388-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789.E2.80.9390-388\">[368]<\/a><\/sup> Kershaw made the analogy that \"the road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved with indifference\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198971_389-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198971-389\">[369]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198791_390-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198791-390\">[370]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Kershaw's assessment that most Bavarians, and by implication most Germans, were indifferent to the Holocaust faced criticism from historians Otto Dov Kulka and Michael Kater. Kater maintained that Kershaw downplayed the extent of popular antisemitism, and that though admitting that most of the \"spontaneous\" antisemitic actions of Nazi Germany were staged, argued that because these actions involved substantial numbers of Germans, it is wrong to see the extreme antisemitism of the Nazis as coming solely from above.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_391-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-391\">[371]<\/a><\/sup> Kulka argued that most Germans were more antisemitic than Kershaw portrayed them and that rather than \"indifference\", \"passive complicity\" would be a better term to describe the reaction of the German people.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793_392-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793-392\">[372]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In a study focusing only on the views about Jews among Germans opposed to the Nazi regime, historian Christof Dipper in his 1983 essay \"<i>Der Deutsche Widerstand und die Juden<\/i>\" argued that the majority of the anti-Nazi national-conservatives were antisemitic.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_391-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-391\">[371]<\/a><\/sup> Though Dipper noted no one in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_resistance\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"German resistance\">German resistance<\/a> supported the Holocaust, he also commented that the national-conservatives did not intend to restore civil rights to the Jews after the planned overthrow of Hitler.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_391-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-391\">[371]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Research by the United States Holocaust Museum has established that because the camps were so widespread<sup id=\"cite_ref-393\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-393\">[u]<\/a><\/sup> it is unlikely that the German population could avoid knowing about the persecutions and killings.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013-150\">[143]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Gellately\" title=\"Robert Gellately\">Robert Gellately<\/a> has argued that the German civilian population were, by and large, aware of what was happening. According to Gellately, the government openly announced the conspiracy through the media and civilians were aware of its every aspect except for the use of gas chambers.<sup id=\"cite_ref-394\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-394\">[373]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Victims_enumerated\">Victims enumerated<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_victims\" title=\"Holocaust victims\">Holocaust victims<\/a><\/div>\n<table class=\"wikitable\" style=\"float:right; width:45%; margin-left:1em; font-size:90%\">\n<tr>\n<th>Victims (enlarged)<\/th>\n<th>Killed<\/th>\n<th>Source<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Jews<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">5.93 million<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Dawidowicz<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_395-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403-395\">[374]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Soviet POWs<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">2\u20133 million<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Berenbaum<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_396-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125-396\">[375]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Ethnic Poles<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">1.8\u20131.9 million<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Piotrowski<sup id=\"cite_ref-PolishVictims_397-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-PolishVictims-397\">[376]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-PiotrowskiPIP_398-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-PiotrowskiPIP-398\">[377]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Disabled<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">150,000<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Niewyk & Nicosia<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-32\">[27]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Romani<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">90,000\u2013220,000<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">USHMM \/ Hancock<sup id=\"cite_ref-RomaUSHMM_399-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-RomaUSHMM-399\">[378]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-401\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-401\">[v]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396_402-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396-402\">[380]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Homosexuals<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">5,000\u201315,000<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Harran<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-403\">[381]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td><span class=\"nowrap\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/span><\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;\">1,400 to 2,500<\/td>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">USHMM,<sup id=\"cite_ref-USHMMJW_404-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-USHMMJW-404\">[382]<\/a><\/sup> Milton<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_405-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-405\">[383]<\/a><\/sup><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<p>The number of victims depends on which definition of the Holocaust is used.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045-11\">[8]<\/a><\/sup> The number of Jewish victims is somewhere over 5 million,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045-11\">[8]<\/a><\/sup> with upper estimates ranging from 5.9 million,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199887_406-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199887-406\">[384]<\/a><\/sup> to 6 million,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_85-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285-85\">[80]<\/a><\/sup> or even over 6 million.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002454_407-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002454-407\">[385]<\/a><\/sup> The broadest definition of the Holocaust would raise the death toll to 17 million.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045-11\">[8]<\/a><\/sup> A research project conducted by the <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a> estimated that 15 to 20 million people died or were imprisoned during the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013-150\">[143]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolph_Rummel\" title=\"Rudolph Rummel\">Rudolph Rummel<\/a> estimates the total <a href=\"\/wiki\/Democide\" title=\"Democide\">democidal<\/a> death toll of Nazi Germany to be 21 million.<\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Jewish_death_toll\">Jewish death toll<\/span><\/h3>\n<table class=\"sortable wikitable\" style=\"float:right; clear:right; text-align:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:90%\">\n<caption>Figures updated for the Jewish death toll by postwar European borders according to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wolfgang_Benz\" title=\"Wolfgang Benz\">Wolfgang Benz<\/a><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBenz2001145_408-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBenz2001145-408\">[386]<\/a><\/sup><\/caption>\n<tr>\n<th>Country<br \/>\n(1945)<\/th>\n<th>Death toll of Jews<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Poland<\/td>\n<td>2,700,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td><span class=\"nowrap\">Soviet republics<\/span><\/td>\n<td>2,100,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Germany<\/td>\n<td>144,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Austria<\/td>\n<td>48,767<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Czechoslovakia<\/td>\n<td>143,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Greece<\/td>\n<td>58,443<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Netherlands<\/td>\n<td>102,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Hungary<\/td>\n<td>559,250<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Belgium<\/td>\n<td>28,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Yugoslavia<\/td>\n<td>51,400<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Romania<\/td>\n<td>120,919<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Norway<\/td>\n<td>758<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">France<\/td>\n<td>76,000<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Bulgaria<\/td>\n<td>7,335<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Luxembourg<\/td>\n<td>720<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Denmark<\/td>\n<td>116<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Italy<\/td>\n<td>5,596<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"left\">Albania<\/td>\n<td>591<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<p>Adolf Eichmann, one of the principal architects of the Holocaust, gave a figure of 6 million Jewish victims.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797_409-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797-409\">[387]<\/a><\/sup> The <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a> Museum writes that \"there is no precise figure for the number of Jews killed\",<sup id=\"cite_ref-YadVashemnumbers_410-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-YadVashemnumbers-410\">[388]<\/a><\/sup> but has been able to find documentation of more than three million names of Jewish victims killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-411\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-411\">[389]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The early postwar calculations ranged from about 4.2 to 4.5 million in <i>The Final Solution<\/i> (1953) by <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gerald_Reitlinger\" title=\"Gerald Reitlinger\">Gerald Reitlinger<\/a>, who was arguing against higher Russian estimates,<sup id=\"cite_ref-ReitReviews_412-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ReitReviews-412\">[390]<\/a><\/sup> and 5.1 million from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Raul_Hilberg\" title=\"Raul Hilberg\">Raul Hilberg<\/a>, to 5.95 million from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jacob_Lestschinsky\" title=\"Jacob Lestschinsky\">Jacob Lestschinsky<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797_409-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797-409\">[387]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yehuda_Bauer\" title=\"Yehuda Bauer\">Yehuda Bauer<\/a> and Robert Rozett in the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Encyclopedia_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Encyclopedia of the Holocaust\">Encyclopedia of the Holocaust<\/a><\/i> estimate 5.59\u20135.86 million.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799_413-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799-413\">[391]<\/a><\/sup> A study led by <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wolfgang_Benz\" title=\"Wolfgang Benz\">Wolfgang Benz<\/a> suggests 5.29 to 6.20 million. These estimates derive from comparing census records from before and after the war as well as the surviving German documentation on deportations and killings.<sup id=\"cite_ref-YadVashemnumbers_410-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-YadVashemnumbers-410\">[388]<\/a><\/sup> Martin Gilbert arrived at a \"minimum estimate\" of over 5.75 million Jewish victims.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001245_414-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001245-414\">[392]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lucy_Dawidowicz\" title=\"Lucy Dawidowicz\">Lucy S. Dawidowicz<\/a> used the pre-war census figures to estimate that 5.934 million Jews died.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_395-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403-395\">[374]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The roughly six million killed in the Holocaust represent one third of the entire world population of Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_277-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291-277\">[264]<\/a><\/sup> The victims were about two-thirds of European Jewry, based on an estimated number of about 9.7 million Jews in Europe at the start of the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199887_406-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199887-406\">[384]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett1799_415-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett1799-415\">[393]<\/a><\/sup> Of those victims, 1.5 million were children.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKeren2001115_416-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKeren2001115-416\">[394]<\/a><\/sup> Much of the uncertainty around how many Jews died comes from issues with how many Jews there were in the Soviet Union; compounded by the <a href=\"\/wiki\/NKVD\" title=\"NKVD\">NKVD<\/a> practice of claiming foreign nationals as Soviet citizens.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Davies956_417-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Davies956-417\">[395]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-Wegner74_418-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Wegner74-418\">[396]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Death_camps\">Death camps<\/span><\/h4>\n<p>At <a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz-Birkenau<\/a> over 1,000,000 people were killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-MMABvictims_419-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-MMABvictims-419\">[397]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998a62_420-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998a62-420\">[398]<\/a><\/sup> At <a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a> 870,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvTreb_247-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvTreb-247\">[234]<\/a><\/sup> to 925,000 Jews were murdered.<sup id=\"cite_ref-421\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-421\">[399]<\/a><\/sup> At <a href=\"\/wiki\/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a>, between 434,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-422\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-422\">[400]<\/a><\/sup> and 600,000 Jews were slaughtered.<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvBelzec_242-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvBelzec-242\">[229]<\/a><\/sup> At <a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a>, between 152,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-423\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-423\">[401]<\/a><\/sup> and 320,000 Jews were executed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvChelmno-225\">[215]<\/a><\/sup> At <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a>, between 170,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-424\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-424\">[402]<\/a><\/sup> and 250,000 Jews were killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvSob_246-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvSob-246\">[233]<\/a><\/sup> At <a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a>, depending on the various sources, between 79,000 and 235,000 Jews were murdered.<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvMaj_244-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvMaj-244\">[231]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-Reszka2005_425-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Reszka2005-425\">[403]<\/a><\/sup> For the death camps, 80\u201390% of the victims are estimated to be Jews. They accounted for half the total number of Jews killed in the entire Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_395-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403-395\">[374]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Other_Jewish_deaths\">Other Jewish deaths<\/span><\/h4>\n<p>Around one million Jews were killed by the <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> in the occupied Soviet territories,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000221.E2.80.93222_426-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000221.E2.80.93222-426\">[404]<\/a><\/sup> an approximate figure, since the <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> reports did not always survive the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTERhodes2002274_427-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTERhodes2002274-427\">[405]<\/a><\/sup> Many more died through execution or of disease and malnutrition in the ghettos of Poland before they could be deported.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9331_428-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9331-428\">[406]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"By_country\">By country<\/span><\/h4>\n<p>Of Poland's 3.3 million Jews, about 90 percent were killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_350-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488-350\">[331]<\/a><\/sup> At the beginning of World War II, the Jewish population of the Baltic States was around 350,000 in total: 250,000 in Lithuania, 95,000 in Latvia, and 4,500 in Estonia.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELaqueu200151.E2.80.9352_429-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELaqueu200151.E2.80.9352-429\">[407]<\/a><\/sup> By the end of 1941, close to 230,000 Jews in Latvia and Lithuania had been murdered during the previous six months.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert199356_430-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert199356-430\">[408]<\/a><\/sup> Of 4,000 Jews in Estonia before the German invasion, some 3,000 fled to the Soviet Union. The remaining 1,000 were all murdered by the SS killing squads.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert199349_431-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert199349-431\">[409]<\/a><\/sup> Finland had about 2000 Jews prior to the outbreak of war, but lost only 7 in the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Soviet figures are problematic because of the uncertainty of how many refugees were in the areas of the Soviet Union occupied by the Germans. There were 3,020,000 Jews living in the Soviet Union in 1939 and the losses were between 1 and 1.1 million. Almost all Jews within the areas occupied by the Germans were killed during the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>According to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_Encyclopedia\" title=\"Holocaust Encyclopedia\">Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/a>, there were 523,000 Jews in Germany in 1933. Following the Nazi takeover, many left the country. About 202,000 Jews remained in Germany and 57,000 in Austria after the invasion of Poland. The majority died in the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-HEn1_433-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-HEn1-433\">[411]<\/a><\/sup> The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia had about 118,000 prior to deportations beginning, and 78,150 died during the Holocaust. Slovakia had almost 89,000 Jews at the start of 1942 with losses of between 68,000 and 71,000, with an unknown number of refugees in transit who were caught and died in Slovakia. The exact number of pre-war Hungarian Jews is complicated by the changes in borders during the war as well as no precise figures on those Jews who were considered Jews only by racial definitions. Rough estimates give 825,000 Jews in Hungary during the war, with losses ranging from 550,000 to 569,000. Italy had about 44,500 Jews and 7680 were killed in the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In Western Europe, Belgium lost 28,900 of a pre-war population of 65,700 Jews. There were approximately 7800 Jews in Denmark before the Holocaust,<sup id=\"cite_ref-434\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-434\">[w]<\/a><\/sup> most of whom survived the war. France had approximately 350,000 Jews at the start of deportations, and 77,300 died in the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-435\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-435\">[x]<\/a><\/sup> Luxembourg had about 3500 Jews before the occupation and about 1950 died. About 100,000 of 140,000 Dutch Jews perished in the Holocaust. Norway had 1700 Jews and lost 762.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-5\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In the Balkans, Bulgaria deported none of its Jewish citizens.<sup id=\"cite_ref-436\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-436\">[y]<\/a><\/sup> Greece had about 77,000 Jews prior to the German and Italian invasion, and 60,000 to 67,000 of them died. Romania's changes of borders make it difficult to give precise figures, but the pre-war population of Jews was around 610,000. Between 271,000 and 287,000 lost their lives in the Holocaust. Yugoslavia had about 78,000 Jews prior to the war, and lost between 56,000 to 67,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-7\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Non-Jewish\">Non-Jewish<\/span><\/h3>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Slavs\">Slavs<\/span><\/h4>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Generalplan Ost<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hunger_Plan\" title=\"Hunger Plan\">Hunger Plan<\/a><\/div>\n<p>The Nazis considered the Slavs as subhumans,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008174.E2.80.93175_437-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008174.E2.80.93175-437\">[412]<\/a><\/sup> or <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Untermenschen\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Untermenschen\">Untermenschen<\/a><\/i>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976359_438-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976359-438\">[413]<\/a><\/sup> Heinrich Himmler in a secret memorandum dated 25 May 1940 expressed his own thoughts and the future plans for the populations in the East.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz201123_439-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz201123-439\">[414]<\/a><\/sup> Himmler stated that it was in the German interests to foster divisions between the ethnic groups in the East. He also wanted to restrict non-Germans in the conquered territories to schools which would only teach them how to write their own name, count up to 500 and to obey Germans.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012450.E2.80.93452_440-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012450.E2.80.93452-440\">[415]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Himmler's General Plan East, or <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Generalplan Ost<\/a><\/i>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz201193_441-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz201193-441\">[416]<\/a><\/sup> which was agreed to by Hitler in the summer of 1942,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMazower2008204-205_442-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMazower2008204-205-442\">[417]<\/a><\/sup> involved exterminating, expelling, or enslaving most or all <a href=\"\/wiki\/Slav\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Slav\">Slavs<\/a> from their lands so as to make <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lebensraum\" title=\"Lebensraum\">living space<\/a> for German settlers, something that would be carried out over a period of 20\u201330 years.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMazower2008208.E2.80.93211_443-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMazower2008208.E2.80.93211-443\">[418]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEM.C3.BCllerUebersch.C3.A4r2002285_444-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEM.C3.BCllerUebersch.C3.A4r2002285-444\">[419]<\/a><\/sup> Though Generalplan Ost was never fully implemented,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011p317_445-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011p317-445\">[420]<\/a><\/sup> historian <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolph_Rummel\" title=\"Rudolph Rummel\">Rudolph Rummel<\/a> estimates the number of Slav civilians and POWs murdered by the Nazis to be 10,547,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Rummel1992_446-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Rummel1992-446\">[421]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h5><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Ethnic_Poles\">Ethnic Poles<\/span><\/h5>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation\" title=\"Nazi crimes against the Polish nation\">Nazi crimes against the Polish nation<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%9345)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Occupation of Poland (1939\u201345)\">Occupation of Poland (1939\u201345)<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pacification_actions_in_German-occupied_Poland\" title=\"Pacification actions in German-occupied Poland\">Pacification actions in German-occupied Poland<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special_Prosecution_Book-Poland\" title=\"Special Prosecution Book-Poland\">Special Prosecution Book-Poland<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">The Holocaust in Poland<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/66\/Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg\/220px-Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"185\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/66\/Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg\/330px-Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/6\/66\/Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"400\" data-file-height=\"336\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Polish_civilians_murdered_by_German-SS-troops_in_Warsaw_Uprising_Warsaw_August_1944.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nPolish civilians executed in Warsaw.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>German planners in November 1939 called for \"the complete destruction\" of all <a href=\"\/wiki\/Poles\" title=\"Poles\">Poles<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001153_447-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001153-447\">[422]<\/a><\/sup> Poland under German occupation was to be cleared of Poles and settled by German colonists.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerghahn199932.E2.80.9333_448-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerghahn199932.E2.80.9333-448\">[423]<\/a><\/sup> But Nazi planners decided against a genocide of ethnic Poles on the same scale as against Jews, at least in the short term.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001154_449-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001154-449\">[424]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/47\/Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg\/220px-Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"139\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/47\/Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg\/330px-Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/47\/Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg\/440px-Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"743\" data-file-height=\"471\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkomanndo_Oktober1939.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nExecution of Poles by <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzkommando\" title=\"Einsatzkommando\">Einsatzkommando<\/a><\/i>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Leszno\" title=\"Leszno\">Leszno<\/a>, October 1939.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>German actions against ethnic Poles were not on the scale of the Jewish genocide. Most <a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Poland\" title=\"History of the Jews in Poland\">Polish Jews<\/a> perished during the Holocaust, while most Christian Poles survived the occupation.<sup id=\"cite_ref-450\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-450\">[425]<\/a><\/sup> Between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished at German hands during the course of the war, about four-fifths of whom were ethnic <a href=\"\/wiki\/Poles\" title=\"Poles\">Poles<\/a> with the rest ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians.<sup id=\"cite_ref-PolishVictims_397-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-PolishVictims-397\">[376]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-PiotrowskiPIP_398-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-PiotrowskiPIP-398\">[377]<\/a><\/sup> At least 200,000 of these victims died in concentration camps with about 146,000 being killed in Auschwitz. Many others died as a result of general massacres or uprisings such as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Uprising\" title=\"Warsaw Uprising\">Warsaw Uprising<\/a> where between 120,000 and 200,000 civilians were killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295_451-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295-451\">[426]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The policy of the Germans in Poland included reducing food rations, deliberate lowering of public hygiene, and the deprivation of medical services. The general mortality rate rose from 13 to 18 per thousand.<sup id=\"cite_ref-452\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-452\">[427]<\/a><\/sup> Overall, about 5.6 million of the victims of World War II were Polish citizens,<sup id=\"cite_ref-PiotrowskiPIP_398-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-PiotrowskiPIP-398\">[377]<\/a><\/sup> both Jewish and non-Jewish, and over the course of the war Poland lost 16 percent of its pre-war population.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998305_453-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998305-453\">[428]<\/a><\/sup> Over 90 percent of the death toll came through non-military losses, through various deliberate actions by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295_451-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295-451\">[426]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h5><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Other_West_Slavs\">Other West Slavs<\/span><\/h5>\n<p>Other West Slavic populations were persecuted. About 350,000 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Czechoslovakia\" title=\"Czechoslovakia\">Czechoslovak<\/a> citizens died as a result of German actions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELatawski2001216.E2.80.93217_454-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELatawski2001216.E2.80.93217-454\">[429]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h5><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Ethnic_Serbs_and_other_South_Slavs\">Ethnic Serbs and other South Slavs<\/span><\/h5>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_persecution_of_Serbs\" title=\"World War II persecution of Serbs\">World War II persecution of Serbs<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/c\/c7\/Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg\/170px-Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"237\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/c\/c7\/Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg\/255px-Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/c\/c7\/Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg\/340px-Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"408\" data-file-height=\"569\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Usta%C5%A1e_sawing_off_the_head_of_a_Serb_civilian.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nCroatian Usta\u0161e sawing off the head of Branko Jungi\u0107, an ethnic <a href=\"\/wiki\/Serb\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Serb\">Serb<\/a> from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bosnia_(region)\" title=\"Bosnia (region)\">Bosnia<\/a>.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The Germans had specific orders from Hitler to fight ruthlessly against the Serbs, who, besides being potential allies of the Russians, were considered <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Untermenschen\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Untermenschen\">Untermenschen<\/a><\/i> (sub-humans).<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTETomasevich2001744_455-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTETomasevich2001744-455\">[430]<\/a><\/sup> The <a href=\"\/wiki\/Usta%C5%A1e\" title=\"Usta\u0161e\">Usta\u0161e<\/a> collaborators conducted a systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were <a href=\"\/wiki\/Serbs\" title=\"Serbs\">Serbs<\/a>, but <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bosniaks\" title=\"Bosniaks\">Bosniaks<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Croats\" title=\"Croats\">Croats<\/a> and others were also victims.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201154.E2.80.9355_456-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201154.E2.80.9355-456\">[431]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a> reports that between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jasenovac_concentration_camp\" title=\"Jasenovac concentration camp\">Jasenovac concentration camp<\/a>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-457\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-457\">[432]<\/a><\/sup> with estimates ranging from a low of 20,000 to as many as a million.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155-56_458-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155-56-458\">[433]<\/a><\/sup> Yad Vashem reports that over 500,000 Serbs were murdered by the Usta\u0161e.<sup id=\"cite_ref-459\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-459\">[434]<\/a><\/sup> Other, Serbian, estimates range from 600,000 to 1 million Serbian deaths during the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155.E2.80.9356_460-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155.E2.80.9356-460\">[435]<\/a><\/sup> Excluding Slovenes under Italian rule, about 55,000 civilian <a href=\"\/wiki\/Slovenes\" title=\"Slovenes\">Slovenes<\/a> were killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173_461-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173-461\">[436]<\/a><\/sup> Estimates of Bosnian Muslims killed during the war range from 75,000<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173.E2.80.9374_462-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173.E2.80.9374-462\">[437]<\/a><\/sup> to 100,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201198_463-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201198-463\">[438]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"\/wiki\/Albanians\" title=\"Albanians\">Albanian<\/a> collaborationists cooperated with the Nazis in an extensive persecution of non-Albanians. The Albanian <a href=\"\/wiki\/21st_Waffen_Mountain_Division_of_the_SS_Skanderbeg\" title=\"21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg\">SS Skenderbeg Division<\/a> participated in rounding up Jews as well as the killing and looting of Serbian areas. 3,000 to 10,000 Kosovo Serbs were murdered by the Albanians during the war, and another 30,000 to 100,000 were expelled.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201194.E2.80.9395_464-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201194.E2.80.9395-464\">[439]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h5><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"East_Slavs\">East Slavs<\/span><\/h5>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_occupation_of_Byelorussia_during_World_War_II\" title=\"German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II\">German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reichskommissariat_Ukraine\" title=\"Reichskommissariat Ukraine\">Reichskommissariat Ukraine<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52,_Russland,_bei_Minsk,_tote_Zivilisten.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e6\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52%2C_Russland%2C_bei_Minsk%2C_tote_Zivilisten.jpg\/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52%2C_Russland%2C_bei_Minsk%2C_tote_Zivilisten.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"146\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e6\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52%2C_Russland%2C_bei_Minsk%2C_tote_Zivilisten.jpg\/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52%2C_Russland%2C_bei_Minsk%2C_tote_Zivilisten.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/e\/e6\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52%2C_Russland%2C_bei_Minsk%2C_tote_Zivilisten.jpg\/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52%2C_Russland%2C_bei_Minsk%2C_tote_Zivilisten.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"799\" data-file-height=\"530\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-043-52,_Russland,_bei_Minsk,_tote_Zivilisten.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nMass murder of Soviet civilians near <a href=\"\/wiki\/Minsk\" title=\"Minsk\">Minsk<\/a>, Belarus, 1943<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>Soviet civilian populations in the occupied areas were also heavily persecuted outside of events taking place in the frontline warfare of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)\" title=\"Eastern Front (World War II)\">Eastern Front<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171_465-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171-465\">[440]<\/a><\/sup> Villages throughout the Soviet Union were destroyed by German troops.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011333.E2.80.93334_466-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011333.E2.80.93334-466\">[441]<\/a><\/sup> Germans rounded up civilians for forced labour in Germany as well as causing famines by taking foodstuffs.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171_465-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171-465\">[440]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In 1995 The Russian Academy of Sciences reported that <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_casualties_of_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"World War II casualties of the Soviet Union\">the number of civilian victims in the USSR<\/a> who were murdered at German hands, including Jews, totaled 13.7 million dead, 20% of the 68 million persons in the occupied USSR. This included 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals.<sup id=\"cite_ref-ReferenceA_467-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ReferenceA-467\">[442]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In Belarus, Nazi Germany imposed a regime in the country that deported some 380,000 people for slave labour and killed hundreds of thousands of civilians. More than 600 villages had their entire populations killed and at least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed by the Nazis. According to Timothy Snyder, of \"the nine million people who were on the territory of Soviet Belarus in 1941, some 1.6 million were killed by the Germans in actions away from battlefields, including about 700,000 prisoners of war, 500,000 Jews, and 320,000 people counted as partisans (the vast majority of whom were unarmed civilians)\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010250.E2.80.93251_468-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010250.E2.80.93251-468\">[443]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h5><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Soviet_POWs\">Soviet POWs<\/span><\/h5>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war\" title=\"German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war\">German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208,_KZ_Mauthausen,_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/59\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg\/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"140\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/59\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg\/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/5\/59\/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg\/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"779\" data-file-height=\"494\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208,_KZ_Mauthausen,_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nNaked Soviet POWs in Mauthausen concentration camp. Unknown date.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has estimated that 3.3 million of the 5.7 million Soviet POWs died in German custody.<sup id=\"cite_ref-469\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-469\">[444]<\/a><\/sup> The death rates decreased as the POWs were needed to work as slaves to help the German war effort; by 1943, half a million of them had been deployed as <a href=\"\/wiki\/Slave_labour\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Slave labour\">slave labour<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_396-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125-396\">[375]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Romani_people\">Romani people<\/span><\/h4>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Porajmos<\/a><\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Further information: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Antiziganism\" title=\"Antiziganism\">Antiziganism<\/a><\/div>\n<p>The Romani were subject to discrimination under the Nuremberg racial laws.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich201050_470-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich201050-470\">[445]<\/a><\/sup> Because the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Romani_people\" title=\"Romani people\">Romani<\/a> are traditionally private with a culture based on <a href=\"\/wiki\/Oral_history\" title=\"Oral history\">oral history<\/a>, less is known about their experience than is known about any other group.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047_471-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047-471\">[446]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yehuda_Bauer\" title=\"Yehuda Bauer\">Yehuda Bauer<\/a> writes that the lack of information can be attributed to the Romani's distrust and suspicion, and to their humiliation, because some of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Taboo\" title=\"Taboo\">taboos<\/a> in Romani culture regarding hygiene and sex were violated at Auschwitz.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998453_472-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998453-472\">[447]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:332px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Persecution_of_Roma.gif\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/96\/Persecution_of_Roma.gif\/330px-Persecution_of_Roma.gif\" width=\"330\" height=\"217\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/9\/96\/Persecution_of_Roma.gif\/495px-Persecution_of_Roma.gif 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/9\/96\/Persecution_of_Roma.gif 2x\" data-file-width=\"640\" data-file-height=\"420\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Persecution_of_Roma.gif\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nMap of persecution of the Roma<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The treatment of the Romani was not consistent across German-occupied territories, with those in France and the Low Countries subject to restrictions on movement and some confinement to collection camps. Those in Central and Eastern Europe were sent to concentration camps and murdered by soldiers and execution squads.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421_473-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421-473\">[448]<\/a><\/sup> Before being sent to the camps, the victims were herded into ghettos, including several hundred into the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw Ghetto<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-USHMMDepoWar_188-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-USHMMDepoWar-188\">[180]<\/a><\/sup> Further east, teams of <i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> tracked down Romani encampments and murdered the inhabitants on the spot, leaving no records of the victims. They were also targeted by the allies of the Germans, such as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Usta%C5%A1e\" title=\"Usta\u0161e\">Usta\u0161e<\/a> regime in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Croatia\" title=\"Croatia\">Croatia<\/a>, where a large number of Romani were killed in the Jasenovac concentration camp.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421_473-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421-473\">[448]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In May 1942, the Romani were placed under similar labour and social laws to the Jews. On 16 December 1942, Heinrich Himmler issued a decree that \"Gypsy Mischlinge [mixed breeds], Roma Gypsies, and members of the clans of Balkan origins who are not of German blood\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444_474-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444-474\">[449]<\/a><\/sup> should be sent to Auschwitz, unless they had served in the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wehrmacht\" title=\"Wehrmacht\">Wehrmacht<\/a><\/i>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444_474-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444-474\">[449]<\/a><\/sup> This was adjusted on 15 November 1943, when Himmler ordered that, in the occupied Soviet areas, \"sedentary Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be treated as citizens of the country. Nomadic Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be placed on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998445_475-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998445-475\">[450]<\/a><\/sup> Bauer argues that this adjustment reflected Nazi ideology that the Romani, originally an Aryan population, had been \"spoiled\" by non-Romani blood.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998446_476-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998446-476\">[451]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Donald Niewyk and Frances Nicosia write that the death toll was at least 130,000 of the nearly one million Romani in German-occupied Europe.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047_471-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047-471\">[446]<\/a><\/sup> Michael Berenbaum writes that serious scholarly estimates lie between 90,000 and 220,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006126_477-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006126-477\">[452]<\/a><\/sup> The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum calculates a death toll of at least 220,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-RomaUSHMM_399-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-RomaUSHMM-399\">[378]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ian_Hancock\" title=\"Ian Hancock\">Ian Hancock<\/a> has argued in favour of a much higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396_402-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396-402\">[380]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Persons_of_color\">Persons of color<\/span><\/h4>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_black_people_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany\">Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Rhineland_Bastard\" title=\"Rhineland Bastard\">Rhineland Bastard<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany#Other_.22non-Aryans.22\" title=\"Racial policy of Nazi Germany\">Racial policy of Nazi Germany \u00a7 Other \"non-Aryans\"<\/a><\/div>\n<p>The number of Afro-Germans in Germany when the Nazis came to power is variously estimated at 5,000\u201325,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELusane200397.E2.80.938_478-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELusane200397.E2.80.938-478\">[453]<\/a><\/sup> It is not clear whether these figures included Asians. Although blacks in Germany and German-occupied Europe were subjected to incarceration, sterilization, murder, and other abuse, there was no programme to kill all of them as there was for the Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-479\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-479\">[454]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Others\">Others<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Aktion_brand.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fd\/Aktion_brand.jpg\/170px-Aktion_brand.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"234\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fd\/Aktion_brand.jpg\/255px-Aktion_brand.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fd\/Aktion_brand.jpg\/340px-Aktion_brand.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2218\" data-file-height=\"3056\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Aktion_brand.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nHitler's order for Action T4.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Disabled_and_mentally_ill\">Disabled and mentally ill<\/span><\/h4>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_eugenics\" title=\"Nazi eugenics\">Nazi eugenics<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">Aktion T4<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Erbkrank\" title=\"Erbkrank\">Erbkrank<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Law_for_the_Prevention_of_Hereditarily_Diseased_Offspring\" title=\"Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring\">Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Life_unworthy_of_life\" title=\"Life unworthy of life\">Life unworthy of life<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Schloss_Hartheim\" title=\"Schloss Hartheim\">Schloss Hartheim<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Nazis used the phrase <i>Lebensunwertes Leben<\/i> (<a href=\"\/wiki\/Life_unworthy_of_life\" title=\"Life unworthy of life\">Life unworthy of life<\/a>) in reference to their disabled or mentally-ill victims.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton200021_480-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton200021-480\">[455]<\/a><\/sup> In July 1933, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Law_for_the_Prevention_of_Hereditarily_Diseased_Offspring\" title=\"Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring\">Sterilization Law<\/a> allowing for compulsory sterilization of the \"inferior\" was passed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEProctor1988101.E2.80.93103_481-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEProctor1988101.E2.80.93103-481\">[456]<\/a><\/sup> In the first year of operation, this <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_eugenics\" title=\"Nazi eugenics\">eugenics policy<\/a> had over 80,000 cases, which were decided in favour of sterilization over 90 percent of the time. Estimates for the total number of involuntary sterilizations during the whole of the Third Reich range from 300,000 to 400,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEProctor1988106.E2.80.93108_482-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEProctor1988106.E2.80.93108-482\">[457]<\/a><\/sup> In October 1939 <a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Adolf Hitler\">Adolf Hitler<\/a> signed a \"euthanasia decree\" backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reichsleiter\" title=\"Reichsleiter\">Reichsleiter<\/a><\/i> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Philipp_Bouhler\" title=\"Philipp Bouhler\">Philipp Bouhler<\/a>, the chief of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hitler%27s_Chancellery\" title=\"Hitler's Chancellery\">Hitler's Chancellery<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Brandt\" title=\"Karl Brandt\">Karl Brandt<\/a>, Hitler's personal physician, to carry out the programme of involuntary euthanasia, known as <i>Action T4<\/i>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann1991142.E2.80.93149_483-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann1991142.E2.80.93149-483\">[458]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The <i>Action T4<\/i> programme aimed to maintain the racial purity of the German people by killing or <a href=\"\/wiki\/Compulsory_sterilization#Germany\" title=\"Compulsory sterilization\">sterilizing<\/a> citizens who were judged to be <a href=\"\/wiki\/Disability\" title=\"Disability\">disabled<\/a> or suffering from <a href=\"\/wiki\/Mental_disorder\" title=\"Mental disorder\">mental disorders<\/a>. The program was named after <a href=\"\/wiki\/Tiergartenstra%C3%9Fe\" title=\"Tiergartenstra\u00dfe\">Tiergartenstra\u00dfe<\/a> 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Tiergarten,_Berlin\" title=\"Tiergarten, Berlin\">Tiergarten<\/a>, where the various organizations involved were headquartered.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKershaw2000252.E2.80.93261_484-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKershaw2000252.E2.80.93261-484\">[459]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally-ill adults in institutions were killed; 5,000 children in institutions; and 1,000 Jews in institutions. There were also specialized killing centres, where the deaths are estimated as 20,000, according to Georg Renno, the deputy director of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Schloss_Hartheim\" title=\"Schloss Hartheim\">Schloss Hartheim<\/a>, one of the euthanasia centers, or 400,000, according to Frank Zeireis, the commandant of Mauthausen concentration camp.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton2000142_485-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton2000142-485\">[460]<\/a><\/sup> Overall, the number of mentally and physically handicapped murdered was about 150,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-32\">[27]<\/a><\/sup> Despite not being formally ordered to take part, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Psychiatrist\" title=\"Psychiatrist\">psychiatrists<\/a> and many psychiatric institutions took part in the planning and carrying out of the <i>Action T4<\/i> at every stage, and constituted the connection to the later annihilation of Jews and others in the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStrous2007_486-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStrous2007-486\">[461]<\/a><\/sup> After strong protests by the German Catholic and Protestant churches in August 1941 Hitler ordered the cancellation of the T4 program,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton200090.E2.80.9395_487-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton200090.E2.80.9395-487\">[462]<\/a><\/sup> although the disabled and mentally-ill continued to be killed until the end of the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-32\">[27]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Homosexuals\">Homosexuals<\/span><\/h4>\n<div class=\"thumb tleft\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7c\/Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg\/170px-Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"242\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7c\/Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg\/255px-Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7c\/Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg\/340px-Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"647\" data-file-height=\"922\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Reichszentrale-Erlass-1936.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\n<a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Himmler\" title=\"Heinrich Himmler\">Himmler's<\/a> executive order from 1938 for the establishment of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reich_Central_Office_for_the_Combating_of_Homosexuality_and_Abortion\" title=\"Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion\">Reich's office against homosexuality.<\/a><\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Institut_f%C3%BCr_Sexualwissenschaft\" title=\"Institut f\u00fcr Sexualwissenschaft\">Institut f\u00fcr Sexualwissenschaft<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pink_triangle\" title=\"Pink triangle\">Pink triangle<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust\">Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Between 5,000 and 15,000 German homosexuals are estimated to have been sent to concentration camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-403\">[381]<\/a><\/sup> James Steakley writes that what mattered in Germany was criminal intent or character, rather than acts, and the <i>\"gesundes Volksempfinden\"<\/i> (\"healthy sensibility of the people\") became the guiding legal principle.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Steakley74_488-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Steakley74-488\">[463]<\/a><\/sup> In 1936, Himmler created the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reich_Central_Office_for_the_Combating_of_Homosexuality_and_Abortion\" title=\"Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion\">Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237_489-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237-489\">[464]<\/a><\/sup> Homosexuality was declared contrary to \"wholesome popular sentiment\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-403\">[381]<\/a><\/sup> The Gestapo raided <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gay_bar\" title=\"Gay bar\">gay bars<\/a>, tracked individuals using the address books of those they arrested, used the subscription lists of gay magazines to find others, and encouraged people to report suspected homosexual behavior and to scrutinize the behavior of their neighbors.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-403\">[381]<\/a><\/sup><sup id=\"cite_ref-Steakley74_488-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Steakley74-488\">[463]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Tens of thousands were convicted between 1933 and 1944 and sent to camps for \"rehabilitation\", where they were identified by pink triangles.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Steakley74_488-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Steakley74-488\">[463]<\/a><\/sup> Hundreds were <a href=\"\/wiki\/Castration\" title=\"Castration\">castrated<\/a>, sometimes voluntarily in hopes that they could avoid criminal sentences, although in some cases the consent had been forced.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGiles199245.E2.80.937_490-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGiles199245.E2.80.937-490\">[465]<\/a><\/sup> They were abused, tortured, used in medical experiments, and killed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-4\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-403\">[381]<\/a><\/sup> Steakley writes that the full extent of gay suffering was slow to emerge after the war. Many victims kept their stories to themselves because homosexuality remained criminalized in postwar Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-Steakley74_488-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-Steakley74-488\">[463]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Political_opponents\">Political opponents<\/span><\/h4>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:172px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_(Delikt).jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f0\/Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_%28Delikt%29.jpg\/170px-Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_%28Delikt%29.jpg\" width=\"170\" height=\"255\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f0\/Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_%28Delikt%29.jpg\/255px-Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_%28Delikt%29.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/f0\/Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_%28Delikt%29.jpg\/340px-Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_%28Delikt%29.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"1706\" data-file-height=\"2560\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Gestapo-Akte_Georg_Elser_(Delikt).jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nGerman opponent of Nazism executed at Dachau.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest opponents of the Nazis,<sup id=\"cite_ref-491\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-491\">[466]<\/a><\/sup> and they were also among the first to be sent to concentration camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125_158-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125-158\">[151]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>Before the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler issued the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Commissar_Order\" title=\"Commissar Order\">Commissar Order<\/a>, which ordered the execution of all political <a href=\"\/wiki\/Commissar\" title=\"Commissar\">commissars<\/a> and Communist Party members captured.<sup id=\"cite_ref-492\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-492\">[467]<\/a><\/sup> <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nacht_und_Nebel\" title=\"Nacht und Nebel\">Nacht und Nebel<\/a><\/i> (\"Night and Fog\") was a directive of Hitler in December 1941, resulting in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Kidnapping\" title=\"Kidnapping\">kidnapping<\/a> and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Forced_disappearance\" title=\"Forced disappearance\">disappearance<\/a> of political activists throughout the German occupied territories.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184_493-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184-493\">[468]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h4><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Jehovah.27s_Witnesses\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/span><\/h4>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany\">Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany<\/a><\/div>\n<p>Because they refused to pledge allegiance to the Nazi party or to serve in the military, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jehovah%27s_Witnesses\" title=\"Jehovah's Witnesses\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/a> were sent to concentration camps where they were given the option of renouncing their faith and submitting to the state's authority.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346.E2.80.93349_494-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346.E2.80.93349-494\">[469]<\/a><\/sup> They were marked out by purple triangles. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates between 2700 and 3300 were sent to concentration camps,<sup id=\"cite_ref-USHMMJW_404-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-USHMMJW-404\">[382]<\/a><\/sup> but Sybil Milton states the number in the camps was 10,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_405-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-405\">[383]<\/a><\/sup> Between 1400<sup id=\"cite_ref-USHMMJW_404-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-USHMMJW-404\">[382]<\/a><\/sup> and 2500 died while in the camps.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_405-2\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-405\">[383]<\/a><\/sup> Historian Detlef Garbe writes that \"no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251_495-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251-495\">[470]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Uniqueness_question\">Uniqueness question<\/span><\/h2>\n<table class=\"vertical-navbox nowraplinks\" style=\"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%\">\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em;padding-bottom:0.25em;\">Part of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">a series<\/a> on<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;padding-top:0;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">Genocide<\/a><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em;background:#aaddff; color:#000;\">Issues<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"hlist\" style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding-top:0.2em;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cultural_genocide\" title=\"Cultural genocide\">Cultural genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Democide\" title=\"Democide\">Democide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_cleansing\" title=\"Ethnic cleansing\">Ethnic cleansing<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_relations\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ethnic relations\">Ethnic relations<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnocide\" title=\"Ethnocide\">Ethnocide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">Genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocidal_rape\" title=\"Genocidal rape\">Genocidal rape<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Utilitarian_genocide\" title=\"Utilitarian genocide\">Utilitarian genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Double_genocide\" title=\"Double genocide\">Double genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em;background:#aaddff; color:#000;\"><b>Documented instances<\/b><\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"hlist\" style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding-top:0.2em;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide_of_indigenous_peoples\" title=\"Genocide of indigenous peoples\">Genocide of indigenous peoples<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dzungar_genocide\" title=\"Dzungar genocide\">Dzungar genocide<\/a> (1750s)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Circassian_genocide\" title=\"Circassian genocide\">Circassian genocide<\/a> (1860s)<\/li>\n<li>Colonial genocides\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Selk%27nam_genocide\" title=\"Selk'nam genocide\">Selk'nam genocide<\/a> (1890s to 1900s)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Herero_and_Namaqua_Genocide\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Herero and Namaqua Genocide\">Herero and Namaqua Genocide<\/a> (1904\u201307)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Libyan_Genocide\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Libyan Genocide\">Libyan Genocide<\/a> (1923\u201332)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li>Genocides by the Ottoman Empire\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Greek_genocide\" title=\"Greek genocide\">Greek genocide<\/a> (1914\u201323)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Assyrian_genocide\" title=\"Assyrian genocide\">Assyrian genocide<\/a> (1914\u201325)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Armenian_Genocide\" title=\"Armenian Genocide\">Armenian genocide<\/a> (1915\u201323)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_killings_under_Communist_regimes#Soviet_Union\" title=\"Mass killings under Communist regimes\">Soviet genocide<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Population_transfer_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Population transfer in the Soviet Union\">Ethnic cleansing<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holodomor\" title=\"Holodomor\">Holodomor<\/a> (1932\u201333)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Simele_Massacre\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Simele Massacre\">Simele Massacre<\/a> (1933)<\/li>\n<li>Soviet genocide of Poles (1937-45)\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_Operation_of_the_NKVD_(1937%E2%80%9338)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937\u201338)\">Great Purge Era (1937\u201338)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_repressions_of_Polish_citizens_(1939%E2%80%9346)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939\u201346)\">Occupation of Poland (1939\u201345)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Katyn_massacre\" title=\"Katyn massacre\">Katyn massacre<\/a> (1940)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aardakh\" title=\"Aardakh\">Aardakh<\/a> (1944\u201348)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">Nazi Holocaust and genocide<\/a> (1941\u201345)\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Porajmos<\/a><\/li>\n<li>Nazi genocide of Slavs (1941-45)\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_Soviet_Civilians\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi crimes against Soviet Civilians\">Nazi crimes against Soviet Civilians<\/a> (1941\u20131945)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_Soviet_POWs\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs\">Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs<\/a> (1941\u20131945)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_persecution_of_Serbs\" title=\"World War II persecution of Serbs\">Serbian genocide<\/a> (1941-45)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1971_Bangladesh_genocide\" title=\"1971 Bangladesh genocide\">1971 Bangladesh genocide<\/a> (1971)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Burundian_genocides\" title=\"Burundian genocides\">Burundian genocides<\/a> (1972 & 1993)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/East_Timorese_genocide\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"East Timorese genocide\">East Timorese genocide<\/a> (1974\u201399)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cambodian_genocide\" title=\"Cambodian genocide\">Cambodian genocide<\/a> (1975\u201379)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Guatemalan_genocide\" title=\"Guatemalan genocide\">Guatemalan genocide<\/a> (1981\u201383)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anfal_genocide\" title=\"Anfal genocide\">Kurdish genocide<\/a> (1986\u201389)\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Halabja_chemical_attack\" title=\"Halabja chemical attack\">Halabja chemical attack<\/a> (1988)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Isaaq_genocide\" title=\"Isaaq genocide\">Isaaq genocide<\/a> (1988\u20131989)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rwandan_genocide\" title=\"Rwandan genocide\">Rwandan genocide<\/a> (1994)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bosnian_genocide\" title=\"Bosnian genocide\">Bosnian genocide<\/a> (1992\u201395)\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Srebrenica_massacre\" title=\"Srebrenica massacre\">Srebrenica massacre<\/a> (1995)<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li>Genocides by ISIL (2014\u2013)\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yazidi_genocide\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Yazidi genocide\">Yazidi genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide_of_Shias_by_ISIL\" title=\"Genocide of Shias by ISIL\">Shia genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide_of_Christians_by_ISIL\" title=\"Genocide of Christians by ISIL\">Christian genocide<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th style=\"padding:0.1em;background:#aaddff; color:#000;\">Related topics<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"hlist\" style=\"padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding-top:0.2em;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocides_in_history\" title=\"Genocides in history\">Genocides in history<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Khmer_Rouge_Killing_Fields\" title=\"Khmer Rouge Killing Fields\">Khmer Rouge Killing Fields<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hutu_Power\" title=\"Hutu Power\">Hutu Power<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holodomor_genocide_question\" title=\"Holodomor genocide question\">Holodomor genocide question<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Effects_of_genocide_on_youth\" title=\"Effects of genocide on youth\">Effects of genocide on youth<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_genocides_by_death_toll\" title=\"List of genocides by death toll\">List by death toll<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mass_killings_under_Communist_regimes\" title=\"Mass killings under Communist regimes\">Mass killings under Communist regimes<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-communist_mass_killings\" title=\"Anti-communist mass killings\">Anti-communist mass killings<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_wars_and_anthropogenic_disasters_by_death_toll\" title=\"List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll\">Mass Killings Compilation<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"padding:0.3em 0.4em 0.3em;font-weight:bold\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Genocide\" title=\"Category:Genocide\">Category<\/a><\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td style=\"text-align:right;font-size:115%\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Genocide\" title=\"Template:Genocide\"><abbr title=\"View this template\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Genocide\" title=\"Template talk:Genocide\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Genocide&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<p>Shimon Samuels says that one debate in Holocaust scholarship is between \"specifists\" and \"universalists\". The former regards comparisons of the Holocaust to other genocides to be invidious <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_trivialization\" title=\"Holocaust trivialization\">trivialization<\/a>, while the latter places the Holocaust alongside other experiences of mass killings as part and parcel of the global context of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Genocide\" title=\"Genocide\">genocide<\/a> and human suffering.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259_496-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259-496\">[471]<\/a><\/sup> Proponents of the Holocaust's uniqueness argue that comparing it to other genocides trivializes the Holocaust, with regards to its scope, scale, methods and motivations.<sup id=\"cite_ref-497\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-497\">[472]<\/a><\/sup> Opponents of this view consider it immoral and unjustified to hold any tragedy as unique and beyond comparison. Others believe that debating the Holocaust's uniqueness itself is offensive and misguided.<\/p>\n<p>A 2011 survey by Dan Stone deemed the debate \"irrelevant\" in genocide scholarship.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone2011109_44-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone2011109-44\">[39]<\/a><\/sup> However specific arguments about the Nazi Holocaust continue to characterize the views of many specialists on the subject. A 2015 view from a historian of the Third Reich, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_J._Evans\" title=\"Richard J. Evans\">Richard J. Evans<\/a>:<\/p>\n<blockquote class=\"templatequote\">\n<p>Thus although the Nazi 'Final Solution' was one genocide among many, it had features that made it stand out from all the rest as well. Unlike all the others it was bounded neither by space nor by time. It was launched not against a local or regional obstacle, but at a world-enemy seen as operating on a global scale. It was bound to an even larger plan of racial reordering and reconstruction involving further genocidal killing on an almost unimaginable scale, aimed, however, at clearing the way in a particular region \u2013 Eastern Europe \u2013 for a further struggle against the Jews and those the Nazis regarded as their puppets. It was set in motion by ideologues who saw world history in racial terms. It was, in part, carried out by industrial methods. These things all make it unique.<\/p>\n<div class=\"templatequotecite\"><cite>\u2014\u2009Richard Evans, <i>The Third Reich in History and Memory<\/i><sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385_498-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385-498\">[473]<\/a><\/sup><\/cite><\/div>\n<\/blockquote>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Aftermath\">Aftermath<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Aftermath of the Holocaust\">Aftermath of the Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Trials\">Trials<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main articles: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_trials\" title=\"Nuremberg trials\">Nuremberg trials<\/a> and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Dachau_trials\" title=\"Dachau trials\">Dachau trials<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:222px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/64\/Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg\/220px-Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg\" width=\"220\" height=\"170\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/64\/Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg\/330px-Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/64\/Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg\/440px-Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"2931\" data-file-height=\"2259\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Nuremberg_Trials_retouched.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nDefendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials. The main target of the prosecution was <a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring\" title=\"Hermann G\u00f6ring\">Hermann G\u00f6ring<\/a> (at the left edge on the first row of benches), considered to be the most important surviving official in the <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Third_Reich\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Third Reich\">Third Reich<\/a><\/i> after Hitler's death. G\u00f6ring later committed suicide.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_trials\" title=\"Nuremberg trials\">Nuremberg trials<\/a> were a series of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_tribunal\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Military tribunal\">military tribunals<\/a>, held by the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Allies_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Allies of World War II\">Allied forces<\/a> after <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a> in <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg\" title=\"Nuremberg\">Nuremberg<\/a>, Germany, to prosecute prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/a>. The first of these trials was the 1945\u20131946 trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT).<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2006106_499-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris2006106-499\">[474]<\/a><\/sup> This tribunal tried 22 political and military leaders of the Third Reich,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255_500-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255-500\">[475]<\/a><\/sup> except for <a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Adolf Hitler\">Adolf Hitler<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Himmler\" title=\"Heinrich Himmler\">Heinrich Himmler<\/a>, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Joseph_Goebbels\" title=\"Joseph Goebbels\">Joseph Goebbels<\/a>, all of whom had committed suicide several months before.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_501-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-501\">[476]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>The prosecution entered indictments against 24 major war criminals<sup id=\"cite_ref-502\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-502\">[z]<\/a><\/sup> and seven organizations\u2014the leadership of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism\" title=\"Nazism\">Nazi<\/a> party, the Reich Cabinet, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzstaffel\" title=\"Schutzstaffel\">Schutzstaffel<\/a> (SS), <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sicherheitsdienst\" title=\"Sicherheitsdienst\">Sicherheitsdienst<\/a> (SD), the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gestapo\" title=\"Gestapo\">Gestapo<\/a>, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Sturmabteilung\" title=\"Sturmabteilung\">Sturmabteilung<\/a> (SA) and the \"General Staff and High Command\". The indictments were for: participation in a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Conspiracy_(crime)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Conspiracy (crime)\">common plan or conspiracy<\/a> for the accomplishment of a <a href=\"\/wiki\/Crime_against_peace\" title=\"Crime against peace\">crime against peace<\/a>; planning, initiating and waging <a href=\"\/wiki\/War_of_aggression\" title=\"War of aggression\">wars of aggression<\/a> and other crimes against peace; <a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crime\" title=\"War crime\">war crimes<\/a>; and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Crime_against_humanity\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Crime against humanity\">crimes against humanity<\/a>. The Tribunal passed out sentences ranging from acquittal to death by hanging.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643.E2.80.93644_503-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643.E2.80.93644-503\">[477]<\/a><\/sup> Further trials at Nuremberg took place between 1946 and 1949, which tried a further 185 defendants.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646_504-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646-504\">[478]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Effect_on_languages\">Effect on languages<\/span><\/h3>\n<div class=\"thumb tright\">\n<div class=\"thumbinner\" style=\"width:272px;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Einfahrt.jpg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/2\/26\/Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Einfahrt.jpg\/270px-Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Einfahrt.jpg\" width=\"270\" height=\"170\" class=\"thumbimage\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/2\/26\/Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Einfahrt.jpg\/405px-Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Einfahrt.jpg 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/2\/26\/Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Einfahrt.jpg\/540px-Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Einfahrt.jpg 2x\" data-file-width=\"800\" data-file-height=\"504\" \/><\/a>\n<div class=\"thumbcaption\">\n<div class=\"magnify\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:Bundesarchiv_B_285_Bild-04413,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Einfahrt.jpg\" class=\"internal\" title=\"Enlarge\"><\/a><\/div>\nEntrance to Auschwitz-Birkenau, 1945.<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<p>The Holocaust greatly affected Yiddish language and culture. On the eve of <a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a>, there were 11 to 13 million Yiddish speakers in the world. Five-sixths of the Jewish victims spoke Yiddish, which greatly reduced the number of speakers throughout the world.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJacobs20053_505-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEJacobs20053-505\">[479]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Reparations\">Reparations<\/span><\/h3>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Reparations_Agreement_between_Israel_and_West_Germany\" title=\"Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany\">Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany<\/a><\/div>\n<p>In March 1951, a request was made by Israel which claimed global recompense to <a href=\"\/wiki\/Israel\" title=\"Israel\">Israel<\/a> of $1.5 billion based on the financial cost absorbed by Israel for the rehabilitation of 500,000 Jewish survivors. <a href=\"\/wiki\/West_Germany\" title=\"West Germany\">West German<\/a> Chancellor <a href=\"\/wiki\/Konrad_Adenauer\" title=\"Konrad Adenauer\">Konrad Adenauer<\/a> accepted these terms and declared he was ready to negotiate other reparations. A <a href=\"\/wiki\/Claims_Conference\" title=\"Claims Conference\">Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany<\/a> was opened in order to help with individual claims. After negotiations, the claim was reduced to a sum of $720 million in direct and indirect compensation to be paid over a period of 12 years.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531.E2.80.93532_506-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531.E2.80.93532-506\">[480]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<p>In 1988, West Germany allocated another $125 million for reparations. In 1999, many German industries such as <a href=\"\/wiki\/Deutsche_Bank\" title=\"Deutsche Bank\">Deutsche Bank<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Siemens\" title=\"Siemens\">Siemens<\/a> or <a href=\"\/wiki\/BMW\" title=\"BMW\">BMW<\/a> faced lawsuits for their role in the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Forced_labour_under_German_rule_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Forced labour under German rule during World War II\">forced labour during World War II<\/a>. In order to dismiss these lawsuits, Germany agreed to raise $5 billion for reparations.<sup id=\"cite_ref-RestitutionJVL_507-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-RestitutionJVL-507\">[481]<\/a><\/sup> In 2013, Germany agreed to pay a new reparation of \u20ac772 million as a result of negotiations with Israel.<sup id=\"cite_ref-508\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-508\">[482]<\/a><\/sup> In 2014, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/SNCF\" title=\"SNCF\">SNCF<\/a>, the French state-owned railway company, was compelled to allocate $60 million to American Jewish Holocaust survivors for its role in the transport of deportees to Germany.<sup id=\"cite_ref-509\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-509\">[483]<\/a><\/sup> These reparations were sometimes criticized in Israel where they were seen as \"blood money\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-RestitutionJVL_507-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-RestitutionJVL-507\">[481]<\/a><\/sup><\/p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"See_also\">See also<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"navigation\" aria-label=\"Portals\" class=\"noprint portal plainlist tright\" style=\"margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em;border:solid #aaa 1px\">\n<ul style=\"display:table;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0.1em;max-width:175px;background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold\">\n<li style=\"display:table-row\"><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:GenocidePortalLogo(ESR)2.JPG\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"icon\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/08\/GenocidePortalLogo%28ESR%292.JPG\/22px-GenocidePortalLogo%28ESR%292.JPG\" width=\"22\" height=\"28\" class=\"noviewer\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/08\/GenocidePortalLogo%28ESR%292.JPG\/33px-GenocidePortalLogo%28ESR%292.JPG 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/08\/GenocidePortalLogo%28ESR%292.JPG\/43px-GenocidePortalLogo%28ESR%292.JPG 2x\" data-file-width=\"203\" data-file-height=\"261\" \/><\/a><\/span><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:Genocide\" title=\"Portal:Genocide\">Genocide portal<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"display:table-row\"><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7c\/Flag_of_the_German_Reich_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg\/32px-Flag_of_the_German_Reich_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg.png\" width=\"32\" height=\"19\" class=\"noviewer\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7c\/Flag_of_the_German_Reich_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg\/48px-Flag_of_the_German_Reich_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/7c\/Flag_of_the_German_Reich_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg\/64px-Flag_of_the_German_Reich_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"1000\" data-file-height=\"600\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Portal:Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany portal<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"display:table-row\"><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/d\/d3\/HumanRightsLogo.svg\/27px-HumanRightsLogo.svg.png\" width=\"27\" height=\"28\" class=\"noviewer\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/d\/d3\/HumanRightsLogo.svg\/40px-HumanRightsLogo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/d\/d3\/HumanRightsLogo.svg\/54px-HumanRightsLogo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"120\" data-file-height=\"125\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:Human_Rights\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Portal:Human Rights\">Human Rights portal<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"display:table-row\"><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/0e\/Scale_of_justice_2.svg\/27px-Scale_of_justice_2.svg.png\" width=\"27\" height=\"28\" class=\"noviewer\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/0e\/Scale_of_justice_2.svg\/41px-Scale_of_justice_2.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/0\/0e\/Scale_of_justice_2.svg\/55px-Scale_of_justice_2.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"204\" data-file-height=\"208\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:Criminal_justice\" title=\"Portal:Criminal justice\">Criminal justice portal<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"display:table-row\"><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:A_coloured_voting_box.svg\" class=\"image\"><img alt=\"icon\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/0\/01\/A_coloured_voting_box.svg\/28px-A_coloured_voting_box.svg.png\" width=\"28\" height=\"28\" class=\"noviewer thumbborder\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/0\/01\/A_coloured_voting_box.svg\/42px-A_coloured_voting_box.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/0\/01\/A_coloured_voting_box.svg\/56px-A_coloured_voting_box.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"160\" data-file-height=\"160\" \/><\/a><\/span><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:Politics\" title=\"Portal:Politics\">Politics portal<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"display:table-row\"><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/49\/Star_of_David.svg\/24px-Star_of_David.svg.png\" width=\"24\" height=\"28\" class=\"noviewer\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/49\/Star_of_David.svg\/36px-Star_of_David.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/49\/Star_of_David.svg\/48px-Star_of_David.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"260\" data-file-height=\"300\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:Judaism\" title=\"Portal:Judaism\">Judaism portal<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">See also: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:The_Holocaust_by_country\" title=\"Category:The Holocaust by country\">Category:The Holocaust by country<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"div-col columns column-count column-count-2\" style=\"-moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bibliography_of_The_Holocaust\" title=\"Bibliography of The Holocaust\">Bibliography of The Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_denial\" title=\"Holocaust denial\">Holocaust denial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_research\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Holocaust research\">Holocaust research<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Individuals_and_groups_assisting_Jews_during_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust\">Individuals and groups who assisted Jews during the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust\">Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Holocaust_Remembrance_Day\" title=\"International Holocaust Remembrance Day\">International Holocaust Remembrance Day<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/International_response_to_the_Holocaust\" title=\"International response to the Holocaust\">International response to the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_memorials_and_museums\" title=\"List of Holocaust memorials and museums\">Holocaust memorials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_survivors\" title=\"List of Holocaust survivors\">List of Holocaust survivors<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_major_perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust\">List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Righteous Among the Nations\">Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stolperstein\" title=\"Stolperstein\">Stolperstein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Timeline of the Holocaust\">Timeline of the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Notes\">Notes<\/span><\/h2>\n<div class=\"reflist columns references-column-width\" style=\"-moz-column-width: 60em; -webkit-column-width: 60em; column-width: 60em; list-style-type: lower-alpha;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-3\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The extended definition of the Holocaust includes other victims of Nazi crimes against humanity and war crimes, such as the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Romani genocide<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Action_T4\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Action T4\">Germany's eugenics program<\/a>, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war\" title=\"German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war\">German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war<\/a>, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation\" title=\"Nazi crimes against the Polish nation\">Nazi crimes against the Polish nation<\/a> and other Slavs as well as political opponents, the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust\">persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust<\/a>, and the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany\">persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9351_2-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9351-2\">[2]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-5\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">From the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Greek_language\" title=\"Greek language\">Greek<\/a> <span lang=\"el\" xml:lang=\"el\">\u1f41\u03bb\u03cc\u03ba\u03b1\u03c5\u03c3\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2<\/span> <i><span lang=\"el-Latn\" xml:lang=\"el-Latn\">hol\u00f3kaustos<\/span><\/i>: <i>h\u00f3los<\/i>, \"whole\" and <i>kaust\u00f3s<\/i>, \"burnt\".<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii_4-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii-4\">[3]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-6\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-6\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hebrew_language\" title=\"Hebrew language\">Hebrew<\/a>: <big><span lang=\"he\" xml:lang=\"he\">\u05d4\u05e9\u05d5\u05d0\u05d4<\/span><\/big>, <i>HaShoah<\/i>, \"the catastrophe\"<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-15\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-15\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The Hebrew word <i>churban<\/i> is used by many <a href=\"\/wiki\/Orthodox_Jews\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Orthodox Jews\">Orthodox Jews<\/a> to refer to the Holocaust.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel46_14-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel46-14\">[11]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-26\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-26\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Further examples include Ben Kiernan in <i>Blood and Soil<\/i>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKiernan2009454_20-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKiernan2009454-20\">[16]<\/a><\/sup> Stephen Atkins in <i>Holocaust Denial as an International Movement<\/i>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAtkins200911_21-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAtkins200911-21\">[17]<\/a><\/sup> Susan Zuccotti in <i>The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews<\/i>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti19935_22-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti19935-22\">[18]<\/a><\/sup> Richard Evans in <i>Lying About Hitler<\/i>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2002104_23-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2002104-23\">[19]<\/a><\/sup> Martin Gilbert in <i>The Holocaust<\/i>,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518_24-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518-24\">[20]<\/a><\/sup> and Adam Jones in <i>Genocide<\/i>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006147_25-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006147-25\">[21]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-95\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-95\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The French planned to try Grynszpan for murder, but the German invasion in 1940 interrupted the proceedings. Grynszpan was handed over to the Germans and his fate is unknown.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997301.E2.80.93302_94-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997301.E2.80.93302-94\">[89]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-138\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-138\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Only one would survive the war.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140_137-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140-137\">[131]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-163\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-163\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Red signified a political prisoner,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125_158-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125-158\">[151]<\/a><\/sup> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jehovah%27s_Witnesses\" title=\"Jehovah's Witnesses\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/a> had purple triangles,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015126_159-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015126-159\">[152]<\/a><\/sup> \"asocials\" and criminals wore black or green, badges for homosexuals were pink,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015127_160-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015127-160\">[153]<\/a><\/sup> and yellow for Jews.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015623_161-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015623-161\">[154]<\/a><\/sup> Jews had a second yellow triangle which was worn with their original triangle, with the two triangles forming a six-pointed star.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990134_162-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990134-162\">[155]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-199\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-199\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The exact details of who killed whom and when are murky and have led to much debate in Poland.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196_198-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196-198\">[190]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-212\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-212\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The Germans continued to use the ravine for mass killings throughout the war, and the total killed there could have been as high as 100,000.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2008156.E2.80.93157_211-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2008156.E2.80.93157-211\">[202]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-226\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-226\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Although not technically part of Operation <i>Reinhard<\/i>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a> began functioning as an extermination camp in December 1941.<sup id=\"cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-yvChelmno-225\">[215]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-231\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-231\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Che\u0142mno, which used gas vans rather than gas chambers to commit mass murder,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201264.E2.80.9365_227-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201264.E2.80.9365-227\">[216]<\/a><\/sup> had its roots in the extension of the Euthanasia Program <a href=\"\/wiki\/Action_T4\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Action T4\">Action T4<\/a> to the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Warthegau\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Warthegau\">Warthegau<\/a>.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201214.E2.80.9316_228-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201214.E2.80.9316-228\">[217]<\/a><\/sup> The camp was established in November 1941,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201253.E2.80.9355_229-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201253.E2.80.9355-229\">[218]<\/a><\/sup> but it did not begin the liquidation of large numbers of that <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Administrative_divisions_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany\">Gau<\/a><\/i> Jews until December 1941.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201263_230-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201263-230\">[219]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-233\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-233\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Majdanek began as a POW camp, but in August 1942 it had gas chambers installed.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201670.E2.80.9371_232-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201670.E2.80.9371-232\">[220]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-280\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-280\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The fighters probably only had one or two submachine guns and around 10 rifles in addition to pistols, grenades, and homemade gasolene bombs.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209_279-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209-279\">[266]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-285\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-285\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">About 7000 died during the fighting and around 7000 sent to Treblinka.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016616_284-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016616-284\">[270]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-290\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-290\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">About 100 prisoners were either recaptured before leaving the camp or did not even attempt to escape because of illness or other conditions. Another 350 to 400 inmates were killed before getting beyond the fence area. The rest of the prisoners managed to escape, but only about 200 survived the first 24 hours,<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987298_289-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987298-289\">[274]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-313\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-313\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The full extent of his work is unknown because <a href=\"\/wiki\/Otmar_von_Verschuer\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Otmar von Verschuer\">Otmar von Verschuer<\/a> destroyed the correspondence Mengele sent to him while Mengele was at Auschwitz.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton2000358_312-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton2000358-312\">[296]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-318\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-318\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The only exception was <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lodz_Ghetto\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Lodz Ghetto\">Lodz Ghetto<\/a>, which was not liquidated until mid-1944.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003pp256-257_317-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003pp256-257-317\">[300]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-323\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-323\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">One exception was the area around Bialystok, where over 100,000 Jews were deported to extermination camps \u2013 most going to Treblinka, but a few to Auschwitz.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010352.E2.80.93353_322-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010352.E2.80.93353-322\">[304]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-356\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-356\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">According to Krakowski, death marches were a frequent occurrence throughout the war. The inaugural one commenced on 14 January 1940 in occupied Poland, when the SS escorted 800 Jewish POWs from the Polish army to Bia\u0142a Pod\u0142aska from Lublin, a distance of 100 km in a matter of days in the depths of Polish winter. Massacred all along the way, less than 5% of the 800 survived the journey.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKrakowski1989476_355-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKrakowski1989476-355\">[336]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-393\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-393\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">There were over 42,000 camps and other facilities identified. Even in Berlin there were 3,000 camps of various functions.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013-150\">[143]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-401\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-401\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum places the scholarly estimates at 220,000\u2013500,000. According to Berenbaum \"serious scholars estimate that between 90,000 and 220,000 were killed under German rule.\"<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2005126_400-0\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2005126-400\">[379]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-434\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-434\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">6300 were Danish citizens and about 1500 were refugees.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-3\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-435\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-435\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">About a third of the French victims were citizens, the rest were either immigrants after World War I or refugees.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-4\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-436\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-436\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">It did deport some Jews from annexed regions, but these are included in the figures for the original country.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-6\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\">[410]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-502\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-502\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Two of the indictments were dropped before the end of the trial. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Ley\" title=\"Robert Ley\">Robert Ley<\/a> committed suicide in prison, and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Gustav_Krupp\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Gustav Krupp\">Gustav Krupp<\/a> was judged unfit for trial.<sup id=\"cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_501-1\" class=\"reference\"><a href=\"#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-501\">[476]<\/a><\/sup><\/span><\/li>\n<\/ol>\n<\/div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Citations\">Citations<\/span><\/h2>\n<div class=\"reflist columns references-column-width\" style=\"-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em; list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-1\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/yv\/en\/exhibitions\/album_auschwitz\/index.asp\">\"The Auschwitz Album\"<\/a>. <i>Exhibitions<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">24 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Auschwitz+Album&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Exhibitions&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fyv%2Fen%2Fexhibitions%2Falbum_auschwitz%2Findex.asp&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9351-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9351_2-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 47\u201351.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii_4-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDawidowicz1986\">Dawidowicz 1986<\/a>, p. xxxvii.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614-7\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614_7-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201614_7-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGerlach2016\">Gerlach 2016<\/a>, p. 14.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-8\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-8\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation encyclopaedia\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/William_Dwight_Whitney\" title=\"William Dwight Whitney\">Whitney, William Dwight<\/a>, ed. (1904). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/archive.org\/stream\/centurydictio04whit#page\/2858\/mode\/2up\">\"Holocaust\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Century_Dictionary\" title=\"Century Dictionary\">The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia<\/a><\/i>. <b>4<\/b>. p. 2859<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 June<\/span> 2016<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Holocaust&rft.btitle=The+Century+Dictionary+and+Cyclopedia&rft.date=1904&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=2859&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fstream%2Fcenturydictio04whit%23page%2F2858%2Fmode%2F2up&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-9\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-9\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.merriam-webster.com\/dictionary\/holocaust\">\"Holocaust\"<\/a>. <i>Dictionary<\/i>. Merriam-Webster<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">16 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Holocaust&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Dictionary&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.merriam-webster.com%2Fdictionary%2Fholocaust&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-YVDefinition-10\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-YVDefinition_10-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.yadvashem.org\/yv\/en\/holocaust\/resource_center\/the_holocaust.asp\">\"The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">26 June<\/span> 2015<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Definition+and+Preliminary+Discussion&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fyv%2Fen%2Fholocaust%2Fresource_center%2Fthe_holocaust.asp&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045-11\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_11-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, p. 45.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201-12\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201_12-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 201.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115-13\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_13-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2010\">Fischel 2010<\/a>, p. 115.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel46-14\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel46_14-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel\">Fischel<\/a>, p. 46.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix-16\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix_16-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, p. xix.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Longerich-17\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Longerich_17-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\">Longerich, Peter (2003). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.hdot.org\/longrole\/#\">\"Hitler\u2019s Role in the Persecution of the Jews by the Nazi Regime\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Denial on Trial<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Emory_University\" title=\"Emory University\">Emory University<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">30 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Hitler%E2%80%99s+Role+in+the+Persecution+of+the+Jews+by+the+Nazi+Regime&rft.aufirst=Peter&rft.aulast=Longerich&rft.date=2003&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Denial+on+Trial&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.hdot.org%2Flongrole%2F%23&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-413-18\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-413_18-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder2010\">Snyder 2010<\/a>, p. 412-413.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer200210.E2.80.9311-19\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer200210.E2.80.9311_19-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer2002\">Bauer 2002<\/a>, pp. 10\u201311.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKiernan2009454-20\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKiernan2009454_20-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKiernan2009\">Kiernan 2009<\/a>, p. 454.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEAtkins200911-21\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAtkins200911_21-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFAtkins2009\">Atkins 2009<\/a>, p. 11.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti19935-22\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti19935_22-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFZuccotti1993\">Zuccotti 1993<\/a>, p. 5.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2002104-23\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2002104_23-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2002\">Evans 2002<\/a>, p. 104.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518-24\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518_24-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1985\">Gilbert 1985<\/a>, p. 18.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006147-25\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006147_25-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFJones2006\">Jones 2006<\/a>, p. 147.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045.2C_51.E2.80.9352-27\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045.2C_51.E2.80.9352_27-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 45, 51\u201352.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200051.E2.80.9352-28\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200051.E2.80.9352_28-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 51\u201352.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-29\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412_29-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder2010\">Snyder 2010<\/a>, p. 412.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048.E2.80.9349-30\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048.E2.80.9349_30-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 48\u201349.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200049.E2.80.9350-31\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200049.E2.80.9350_31-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 49\u201350.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-32\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_32-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, p. 48.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9348-33\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047.E2.80.9348_33-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 47\u201348.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200050.E2.80.9351-34\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200050.E2.80.9351_34-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 50\u201351.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103-35\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103_35-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103_35-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, p. 103.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987154.E2.80.93159-36\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987154.E2.80.93159_36-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, pp. 154\u2013159.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel167-37\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel167_37-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel\">Fischel<\/a>, p. 167.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi-38\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi_38-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi_38-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007xxi_38-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder2007\">Friedl\u00e4nder 2007<\/a>, p. xxi.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer200248-39\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer200248_39-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer2002\">Bauer 2002<\/a>, p. 48.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMaier198853-40\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMaier198853_40-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMaier1988\">Maier 1988<\/a>, p. 53.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum19967-41\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum19967_41-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum1996\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 1996<\/a>, p. 7.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447-42\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447_42-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCrowe2008\">Crowe 2008<\/a>, p. 447.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001289-43\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001289_43-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert2001\">Gilbert 2001<\/a>, p. 289.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone2011109-44\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone2011109_44-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone2011109_44-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFStone2011\">Stone 2011<\/a>, p. 109.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellatelyStoltzfus2001216-45\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellatelyStoltzfus2001216_45-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGellatelyStoltzfus2001\">Gellately & Stoltzfus 2001<\/a>, p. 216.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Gassing-46\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Gassing_46-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005220\">\"Gassing Operations\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a>. 20 June 2014<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">25 January<\/span> 2015<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Gassing+Operations&rft.date=2014-06-20&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005220&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006148-47\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006148_47-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFJones2006\">Jones 2006<\/a>, p. 148.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen20094.E2.80.936-48\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen20094.E2.80.936_48-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 4\u20136.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9349-49\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9349_49-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischer2002\">Fischer 2002<\/a>, pp. 47\u201349.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-50\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-50\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/web.archive.org\/web\/20070611210724\/http:\/\/www.chgs.umn.edu\/Educational_Resources\/Curriculum\/Broken_Threads\/Boycotts\/boycotts.html\">\"Boycotts\"<\/a>. <i>Educational Resources<\/i>. Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, <a href=\"\/wiki\/University_of_Minnesota\" title=\"University of Minnesota\">University of Minnesota<\/a>. Archived from <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.chgs.umn.edu\/Educational_Resources\/Curriculum\/Broken_Threads\/Boycotts\/boycotts.html\">the original<\/a> on 11 June 2007<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">30 October<\/span> 2016<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Boycotts&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Educational+Resources&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chgs.umn.edu%2FEducational_Resources%2FCurriculum%2FBroken_Threads%2FBoycotts%2Fboycotts.html&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198969-51\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198969_51-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198969_51-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans1989\">Evans 1989<\/a>, p. 69.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedlander1994495.E2.80.93496-52\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedlander1994495.E2.80.93496_52-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedlander1994\">Friedlander 1994<\/a>, pp. 495\u2013496.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-53\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-53\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10007166\">\"Antisemitism in History: World War I\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2015<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Antisemitism+in+History%3A+World+War+I&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007166&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2004377.E2.80.93378-54\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2004377.E2.80.93378_54-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2004\">Evans 2004<\/a>, pp. 377\u2013378.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPeukert1994289-55\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPeukert1994289_55-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPeukert1994\">Peukert 1994<\/a>, p. 289.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9351-56\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer200247.E2.80.9351_56-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischer2002\">Fischer 2002<\/a>, pp. 47\u201351.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil199041.E2.80.9343-57\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil199041.E2.80.9343_57-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, pp. 41\u201343.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKershaw199860-58\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKershaw199860_58-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKershaw1998\">Kershaw 1998<\/a>, p. 60.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200936-59\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200936_59-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 36.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200937.E2.80.9338-60\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200937.E2.80.9338_60-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 37\u201338.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200938-61\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200938_61-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 38.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200939-62\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200939_62-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 39.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming199417-63\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming199417_63-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFleming1994\">Fleming 1994<\/a>, p. 17.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499-64\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_64-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_64-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_64-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNoakesPridham1983\">Noakes & Pridham 1983<\/a>, p. 499.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201528.E2.80.9330-65\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201528.E2.80.9330_65-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, pp. 28\u201330.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201532.E2.80.9338-66\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201532.E2.80.9338_66-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, pp. 32\u201338.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198532-67\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198532_67-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1985\">Gilbert 1985<\/a>, p. 32.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012155-68\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012155_68-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2012\">Longerich 2012<\/a>, p. 155.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201584.E2.80.9386-69\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201584.E2.80.9386_69-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, pp. 84\u201386.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPeukert1987214-70\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPeukert1987214_70-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPeukert1987\">Peukert 1987<\/a>, p. 214.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733-71\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733_71-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199733_71-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, p. 33.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2004434.E2.80.93435-72\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2004434.E2.80.93435_72-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2004\">Evans 2004<\/a>, pp. 434\u2013435.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178-73\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178_73-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178_73-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBurleighWippermann1991\">Burleigh & Wippermann 1991<\/a>, p. 78.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199729-74\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199729_74-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, p. 29.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199186.E2.80.9387-75\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199186.E2.80.9387_75-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBurleighWippermann1991\">Burleigh & Wippermann 1991<\/a>, pp. 86\u201387.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997134-76\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997134_76-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, p. 134.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005158.E2.80.93159-77\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005158.E2.80.93159_77-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, pp. 158\u2013159.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005169-78\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005169_78-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 169.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005543.E2.80.93544-79\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005543.E2.80.93544_79-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, pp. 543\u2013544.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005550-80\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005550_80-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 550.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001122.E2.80.93123-81\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001122.E2.80.93123_81-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGellately2001\">Gellately 2001<\/a>, pp. 122\u2013123.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005544-545-82\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005544-545_82-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 544-545.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005539-83\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005539_83-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 539.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005551-84\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005551_84-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 551.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285-85\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_85-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_85-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_85-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert2001\">Gilbert 2001<\/a>, p. 285.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199820-86\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199820_86-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, p. 20.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder19971-87\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder19971_87-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, p. 1.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199712-88\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199712_88-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, p. 12.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200516-89\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200516_89-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 16.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016147.E2.80.93150-90\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016147.E2.80.93150_90-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, pp. 147\u2013150.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016153.E2.80.93155-91\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016153.E2.80.93155_91-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, pp. 153\u2013155.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005659.E2.80.93661-92\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005659.E2.80.93661_92-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, pp. 659\u2013661.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005580-93\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005580_93-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 580.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997301.E2.80.93302-94\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1997301.E2.80.93302_94-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, pp. 301\u2013302.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005581.E2.80.93582-96\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005581.E2.80.93582_96-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, pp. 581\u2013582.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976201-97\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976201_97-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder1976\">Snyder 1976<\/a>, p. 201.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005583.E2.80.93584-98\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005583.E2.80.93584_98-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, pp. 583\u2013584.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184.E2.80.93185-99\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184.E2.80.93185_99-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, pp. 184\u2013185.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016187-100\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016187_100-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 187.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005591-101\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005591_101-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, p. 591.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016200-102\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016200_102-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 200.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005595.E2.80.93596-103\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005595.E2.80.93596_103-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2005\">Evans 2005<\/a>, pp. 595\u2013596.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBen-RafaelGl.C3.B6cknerSternberg201125.E2.80.9326-104\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBen-RafaelGl.C3.B6cknerSternberg201125.E2.80.9326_104-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBen-RafaelGl.C3.B6cknerSternberg2011\">Ben-Rafael, Gl\u00f6ckner & Sternberg 2011<\/a>, pp. 25\u201326.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1989224-225-105\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder1989224-225_105-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1989\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1989<\/a>, p. 224-225.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199762.E2.80.9363-106\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder199762.E2.80.9363_106-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\">Friedl\u00e4nder 1997<\/a>, pp. 62\u201363.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001-107\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001_107-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001_107-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning2001\">Browning 2001<\/a>.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-108\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-108\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/David_Cesarani\" title=\"David Cesarani\">Cesarani, David<\/a> (17 February 2011). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.bbc.co.uk\/history\/worldwars\/genocide\/radicalisation_01.shtml\">\"From Persecution to Genocide\"<\/a>. <i>History: World Wars<\/i>. BBC<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">25 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=From+Persecution+to+Genocide&rft.aufirst=David&rft.aulast=Cesarani&rft.date=2011-02-17&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=History%3A+World+Wars&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bbc.co.uk%2Fhistory%2Fworldwars%2Fgenocide%2Fradicalisation_01.shtml&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010264-109\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010264_109-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2010\">Fischel 2010<\/a>, p. 264.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEChase1999xiii-110\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEChase1999xiii_110-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFChase1999\">Chase 1999<\/a>, p. xiii.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENaimark200173-111\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENaimark200173_111-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNaimark2001\">Naimark 2001<\/a>, p. 73.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning200481.E2.80.9385-112\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning200481.E2.80.9385_112-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning2004\">Browning 2004<\/a>, pp. 81\u201385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning200488-113\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning200488_113-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning2004\">Browning 2004<\/a>, p. 88.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHildebrand200570-114\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHildebrand200570_114-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHildebrand2005\">Hildebrand 2005<\/a>, p. 70.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008158.E2.80.93159-115\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008158.E2.80.93159_115-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCrowe2008\">Crowe 2008<\/a>, pp. 158\u2013159.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009104.E2.80.93105-116\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009104.E2.80.93105_116-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 104\u2013105.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-117\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_117-4\"><sup><i><b>e<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 29.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004111.E2.80.93113-118\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004111.E2.80.93113_118-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning2004\">Browning 2004<\/a>, pp. 111\u2013113.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9330-119\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9330_119-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 29\u201330.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009111-120\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009111_120-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 111.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201631-121\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201631_121-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 31.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani200477.E2.80.9379-122\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani200477.E2.80.9379_122-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2004\">Cesarani 2004<\/a>, pp. 77\u201379.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000153-123\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000153_123-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, p. 153.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016258.E2.80.93260-124\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016258.E2.80.93260_124-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, pp. 258\u2013260.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000154-125\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000154_125-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, p. 154.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016260-126\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016260_126-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 260.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137-127\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137_127-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009137_127-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 137.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162-128\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162_128-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, p. 162.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002161-129\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002161_129-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, p. 161.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162.E2.80.93163-130\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162.E2.80.93163_130-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, pp. 162\u2013163.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002164-131\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002164_131-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, p. 164.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002165.E2.80.93166-132\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002165.E2.80.93166_132-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, pp. 165\u2013166.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857-133\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857_133-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKrausnick196857_133-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKrausnick1968\">Krausnick 1968<\/a>, p. 57.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002192.E2.80.93193-134\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002192.E2.80.93193_134-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, pp. 192\u2013193.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134-135\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134_135-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134_135-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 134.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016137.E2.80.93139-136\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016137.E2.80.93139_136-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 137\u2013139.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140-137\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140_137-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140_137-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 140.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016141-139\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016141_139-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 141.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131.E2.80.93133-140\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131.E2.80.93133_140-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 131\u2013133.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134.E2.80.93135-141\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134.E2.80.93135_141-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 134\u2013135.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016136.E2.80.93137-142\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016136.E2.80.93137_142-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 136\u2013137.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016135-143\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016135_143-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 135.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-144\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-144\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\">Ochayon, Sheryl. <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.yadvashem.org\/yv\/en\/education\/newsletter\/25\/jews_libya.asp\">\"The Jews of Libya\"<\/a>. <i>The International School for Holocaust Studies<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2013<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Jews+of+Libya&rft.au=Ochayon%2C+Sheryl&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+International+School+for+Holocaust+Studies&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fyv%2Fen%2Feducation%2Fnewsletter%2F25%2Fjews_libya.asp&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer2001256.E2.80.93257-145\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer2001256.E2.80.93257_145-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer2001\">Bauer 2001<\/a>, pp. 256\u2013257.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-146\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-146\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205892.pdf\">\"Tunisia\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Shoah Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">20 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Tunisia&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Shoah+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2FMicrosoft%2520Word%2520-%25205892.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135-147\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135_147-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135_147-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBaumel2001\">Baumel 2001<\/a>, p. 135.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201050.E2.80.9352-148\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201050.E2.80.9352_148-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2010\">Fischel 2010<\/a>, pp. 50\u201352.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288-149\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288_149-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287.E2.80.93288_149-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, pp. 287\u2013288.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013-150\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_150-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLichtblau2013\">Lichtblau 2013<\/a>.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham20001.E2.80.9337-151\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham20001.E2.80.9337_151-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBloxham2000\">Bloxham 2000<\/a>, pp. 1\u201337.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010314.E2.80.93320-152\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010314.E2.80.93320_152-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 314\u2013320.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201676-153\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201676_153-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 76.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016104-154\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016104_154-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 104.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTERozett19901222-155\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERozett19901222_155-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFRozett1990\">Rozett 1990<\/a>, p. 1222.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015347-156\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015347_156-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 347.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000461-157\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000461_157-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHarran2000\">Harran 2000<\/a>, p. 461.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125-158\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125_158-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125_158-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 125.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015126-159\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015126_159-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 126.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015127-160\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015127_160-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 127.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015623-161\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015623_161-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 623.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990134-162\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990134_162-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, p. 134.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015119-164\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015119_164-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 119.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1986345.E2.80.93348-165\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1986345.E2.80.93348_165-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning1986\">Browning 1986<\/a>, pp. 345\u2013348.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003216.E2.80.937-166\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003216.E2.80.937_166-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg2003\">Hilberg 2003<\/a>, pp. 216\u20137.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990166-167\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990166_167-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, p. 166.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990169-168\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990169_168-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, p. 169.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010161-169\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010161_169-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 161.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010167-170\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010167_170-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 167.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990165-171\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990165_171-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, p. 165.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009112-172\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009112_172-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 112.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010166-173\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010166_173-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 166.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTETrunk19961.E2.80.936-174\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrunk19961.E2.80.936_174-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFTrunk1996\">Trunk 1996<\/a>, pp. 1\u20136.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995106-175\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995106_175-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg1995\">Hilberg 1995<\/a>, p. 106.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995170-176\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995170_176-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg1995\">Hilberg 1995<\/a>, p. 170.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93117-177\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93117_177-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 116\u2013117.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1980104-178\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1980104_178-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg1980\">Hilberg 1980<\/a>, p. 104.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93119-179\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009116.E2.80.93119_179-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 116\u2013119.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200681.E2.80.9383-180\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200681.E2.80.9383_180-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, pp. 81\u201383.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995109-181\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1995109_181-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg1995\">Hilberg 1995<\/a>, p. 109.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200679.E2.80.9381-182\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200679.E2.80.9381_182-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, pp. 79\u201381.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031111-183\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031111_183-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg2003\">Hilberg 2003<\/a>, p. 1111.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010285-184\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010285_184-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder2010\">Snyder 2010<\/a>, p. 285.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114-185\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114_185-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114_185-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, p. 114.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003239-186\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003239_186-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003\">Dwork & van Pelt 2003<\/a>, p. 239.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003242.E2.80.93243-187\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003242.E2.80.93243_187-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003\">Dwork & van Pelt 2003<\/a>, pp. 242\u2013243.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-USHMMDepoWar-188\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-USHMMDepoWar_188-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-USHMMDepoWar_188-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005413\">\"Deportations to and from the Warsaw Ghetto\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">27 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Deportations+to+and+from+the+Warsaw+Ghetto&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005413&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378-189\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378_189-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, p. 378.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378.E2.80.93380-190\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378.E2.80.93380_190-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, pp. 378\u2013380.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990382.E2.80.93385-191\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990382.E2.80.93385_191-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, pp. 382\u2013385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990474.E2.80.93478-192\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990474.E2.80.93478_192-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, pp. 474\u2013478.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006175.E2.80.93177-193\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006175.E2.80.93177_193-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, pp. 175\u2013177.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990163.2C_258-194\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990163.2C_258_194-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, pp. 163, 258.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009155-195\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009155_195-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 155.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003267.E2.80.93269-196\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003267.E2.80.93269_196-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003\">Dwork & van Pelt 2003<\/a>, pp. 267\u2013269.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194-197\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194_197-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 194.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196-198\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196_198-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196_198-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 196.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198959-200\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198959_200-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans1989\">Evans 1989<\/a>, p. 59.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleigh2001512.2C_526.E2.80.93527-201\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleigh2001512.2C_526.E2.80.93527_201-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBurleigh2001\">Burleigh 2001<\/a>, pp. 512, 526\u2013527.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268-202\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268_202-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004268_202-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMatth.C3.A4us2004\">Matth\u00e4us 2004<\/a>, p. 268.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275-203\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275_203-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMatth.C3.A4us2004\">Matth\u00e4us 2004<\/a>, p. 275.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275.E2.80.93276-204\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004275.E2.80.93276_204-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMatth.C3.A4us2004\">Matth\u00e4us 2004<\/a>, pp. 275\u2013276.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004270.E2.80.93271-205\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatth.C3.A4us2004270.E2.80.93271_205-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMatth.C3.A4us2004\">Matth\u00e4us 2004<\/a>, pp. 270\u2013271.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004224.E2.80.93225-206\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004224.E2.80.93225_206-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning2004\">Browning 2004<\/a>, pp. 224\u2013225.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003291-207\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003291_207-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg2003\">Hilberg 2003<\/a>, p. 291.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel202067-208\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel202067_208-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2020\">Fischel 2020<\/a>, p. 67.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009156.E2.80.93157-209\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009156.E2.80.93157_209-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 156\u2013157.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008226.E2.80.93227-210\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008226.E2.80.93227_210-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2008\">Evans 2008<\/a>, pp. 226\u2013227.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2008156.E2.80.93157-211\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2008156.E2.80.93157_211-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2008\">Bergen 2008<\/a>, pp. 156\u2013157.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002203-213\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002203_213-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, p. 203.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011102.E2.80.93104-214\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011102.E2.80.93104_214-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFritz2011\">Fritz 2011<\/a>, pp. 102\u2013104.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009157-215\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009157_215-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 157.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199842.E2.80.9343-216\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199842.E2.80.9343_216-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 42\u201343.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBenz200798-217\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBenz200798_217-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBenz2007\">Benz 2007<\/a>, p. 98.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199845-218\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199845_218-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, p. 45.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010305-219\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010305_219-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 305.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010306-220\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010306_220-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 306.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307-221\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307_221-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 307.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010308-222\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010308_222-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 308.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006153-223\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006153_223-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFJones2006\">Jones 2006<\/a>, p. 153.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-aktr-224\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-aktr_224-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%205724.pdf\">\"Aktion Reinhard\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Aktion+Reinhard&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25205724.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-yvChelmno-225\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvChelmno_225-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%202494.pdf\">\"Chelmno\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Chelmno&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25202494.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201264.E2.80.9365-227\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201264.E2.80.9365_227-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMontague2012\">Montague 2012<\/a>, pp. 64\u201365.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201214.E2.80.9316-228\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201214.E2.80.9316_228-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMontague2012\">Montague 2012<\/a>, pp. 14\u201316.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201253.E2.80.9355-229\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201253.E2.80.9355_229-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMontague2012\">Montague 2012<\/a>, pp. 53\u201355.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201263-230\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201263_230-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMontague2012\">Montague 2012<\/a>, pp. 63.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201670.E2.80.9371-232\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201670.E2.80.9371_232-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 70\u201371.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9371-234\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9371_234-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 69\u201371.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669-235\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669_235-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, p. 69.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201671.E2.80.9372-236\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201671.E2.80.9372_236-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 71\u201372.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358-237\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358_237-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201057.E2.80.9358_237-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2010\">Fischel 2010<\/a>, pp. 57\u201358.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881-238\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881_238-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, p. 81.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282-239\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282_239-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 282.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-240\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-240\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Coordinates from corresponding Wikipedia camp pages.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-241\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-241\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Per <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.yadvashem.org\/yv\/en\/holocaust\/about\/05\/auschwitz_birkenau.asp\">Yad Vashem<\/a>, Auschwitz II total numbers are \"more than <span style=\"display:none\" class=\"sortkey\">7006110000000000000\u2660<\/span>1,100,000\".<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-yvBelzec-242\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvBelzec_242-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvBelzec_242-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%205981.pdf\">\"Belzec\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Belzec&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25205981.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-JaseMS-243\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-JaseMS_243-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.jusp-jasenovac.hr\/default.aspx?sid=6711\">\"List of Individual Victims of Jasenovac Concentration Camp\"<\/a>. Jasenovac Memorial Site<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.btitle=List+of+Individual+Victims+of+Jasenovac+Concentration+Camp&rft.genre=unknown&rft.pub=Jasenovac+Memorial+Site&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jusp-jasenovac.hr%2Fdefault.aspx%3Fsid%3D6711&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-yvMaj-244\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvMaj_244-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvMaj_244-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%206622.pdf\">\"Majdanek\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Majdanek&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25206622.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-yvMaly-245\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-yvMaly_245-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%206636.pdf\">\"Maly Trostinets\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Maly+Trostinets&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25206636.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-yvSob-246\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvSob_246-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvSob_246-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%206030.pdf\">\"Sobibor\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Sobibor&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25206030.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-yvTreb-247\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvTreb_247-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-yvTreb_247-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%205886.pdf\">\"Treblinka\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Treblinka&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25205886.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9385-248\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9385_248-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 81\u201385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370-249\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370_249-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669.E2.80.9370_249-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 69\u201370.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008243-250\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008243_250-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCrowe2008\">Crowe 2008<\/a>, p. 243.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad198798-251\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad198798_251-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, p. 98.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9382-252\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881.E2.80.9382_252-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 81\u201382.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003287.E2.80.93288-253\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003287.E2.80.93288_253-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003\">Dwork & van Pelt 2003<\/a>, pp. 287\u2013288.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b173-254\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b173_254-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, p. 173.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague76.E2.80.9385-255\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague76.E2.80.9385_255-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMontague\">Montague<\/a>, pp. 76\u201385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162-256\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162_256-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, p. 162.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157-257\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157_257-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, p. 157.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170-258\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170_258-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, p. 170.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163-259\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163_259-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, p. 163.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170.E2.80.93171-260\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170.E2.80.93171_260-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, pp. 170\u2013171.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b172-261\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b172_261-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, p. 172.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163.E2.80.93164-262\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163.E2.80.93164_262-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998b\">Piper 1998b<\/a>, pp. 163\u2013164.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199883.E2.80.9384-263\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199883.E2.80.9384_263-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 83\u201384.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199884.E2.80.9385-264\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199884.E2.80.9385_264-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 84\u201385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330-265\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330_265-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 330.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987170.E2.80.93171-266\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987170.E2.80.93171_266-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, pp. 170\u2013171.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002219-267\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002219_267-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, p. 219.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010340.E2.80.93341-268\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010340.E2.80.93341_268-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 340\u2013341.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341-269\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341_269-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341_269-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 341.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128-270\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128_270-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112.E2.80.931128_270-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg2003\">Hilberg 2003<\/a>, pp. 1112\u20131128.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010283-271\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010283_271-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder2010\">Snyder 2010<\/a>, p. 283.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1997117-272\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1997117_272-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer1997\">Bauer 1997<\/a>, p. 117.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985828-273\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985828_273-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1985\">Gilbert 1985<\/a>, p. 828.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996126.E2.80.93137-274\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996126.E2.80.93137_274-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg1996\">Hilberg 1996<\/a>, pp. 126\u2013137.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996137-275\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996137_275-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHilberg1996\">Hilberg 1996<\/a>, p. 137.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201682.E2.80.9385-276\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201682.E2.80.9385_276-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 82\u201385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291-277\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_277-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_277-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_277-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert2001\">Gilbert 2001<\/a>, p. 291.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199894-278\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199894_278-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, p. 94.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209-279\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209_279-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009209_279-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 209.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201683.E2.80.9384-281\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201683.E2.80.9384_281-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 83\u201384.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGutman1994243-282\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGutman1994243_282-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGutman1994\">Gutman 1994<\/a>, p. 243.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen200983-283\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen200983_283-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 83.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016616-284\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016616_284-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 616.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016636-286\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016636_286-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 636.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987286-287\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987286_287-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, p. 286.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987293.E2.80.93294-288\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987293.E2.80.93294_288-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, pp. 293\u2013294.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987298-289\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987298_289-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987298_289-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, p. 298.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel198899-291\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel198899_291-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1988\">Fischel 1988<\/a>, p. 99.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199895.E2.80.9396-292\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199895.E2.80.9396_292-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 95\u201396.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199898-293\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199898_293-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199898_293-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, p. 98.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987337-294\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987337_294-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, p. 337.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987341-295\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987341_295-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFArad1987\">Arad 1987<\/a>, p. 341.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTERees2005256.3D257-296\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERees2005256.3D257_296-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFRees2005\">Rees 2005<\/a>, pp. 256=257.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKennedy2007780-297\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKennedy2007780_297-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKennedy2007\">Kennedy 2007<\/a>, p. 780.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100.E2.80.93101-298\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100.E2.80.93101_298-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 100\u2013101.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016648-299\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016648_299-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 648.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTETec2001546-300\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETec2001546_300-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFTec2001\">Tec 2001<\/a>, p. 546.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel-301\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel_301-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel\">Fischel<\/a>.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010302-302\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010302_302-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder2010\">Snyder 2010<\/a>, p. 302.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009212-303\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009212_303-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, p. 212.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993274-304\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993274_304-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFZuccotti1993\">Zuccotti 1993<\/a>, p. 274.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993275-305\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993275_305-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFZuccotti1993\">Zuccotti 1993<\/a>, p. 275.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELador-Lederer198075_note_15-306\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELador-Lederer198075_note_15_306-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLador-Lederer1980\">Lador-Lederer 1980<\/a>, p. 75 note 15.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-307\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-307\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.yadvashem.org\/holocaust\/about\/combat-resistance\/jewish-soldiers\">\"Jewish Soldiers in the Allied Armies\"<\/a>. <i>About the Holocaust<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Jewish+Soldiers+in+the+Allied+Armies&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=About+the+Holocaust&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fholocaust%2Fabout%2Fcombat-resistance%2Fjewish-soldiers&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPinkus1990261-308\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPinkus1990261_308-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPinkus1990\">Pinkus 1990<\/a>, p. 261.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELaqueur2001351-309\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELaqueur2001351_309-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLaqueur2001\">Laqueur 2001<\/a>, pp. 351.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000229.E2.80.93230-310\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000229.E2.80.93230_310-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 229\u2013230.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000384-311\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000384_311-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHarran2000\">Harran 2000<\/a>, p. 384.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton2000358-312\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton2000358_312-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLifton2000\">Lifton 2000<\/a>, p. 358.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410.E2.80.93414-314\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410.E2.80.93414_314-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFisher2001\">Fisher 2001<\/a>, pp. 410\u2013414.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256.E2.80.93257-315\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256.E2.80.93257_315-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003\">Dwork & van Pelt 2003<\/a>, pp. 256\u2013257.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330.E2.80.93339.2C_375.E2.80.93379-316\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330.E2.80.93339.2C_375.E2.80.93379_316-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 330\u2013339, 375\u2013379.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003pp256-257-317\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003pp256-257_317-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003pp256-257\">Dwork et al.<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-319\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-319\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005222\">\"Aktion 'Erntefest' (Operation 'Harvest Festival')\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Aktion+%27Erntefest%27+%28Operation+%27Harvest+Festival%27%29&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005222&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010360.E2.80.93373.2C_386.E2.80.93389.2C_390.E2.80.93396-320\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010360.E2.80.93373.2C_386.E2.80.93389.2C_390.E2.80.93396_320-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 360\u2013373, 386\u2013389, 390\u2013396.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010345.E2.80.93353-321\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010345.E2.80.93353_321-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 345\u2013353.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010352.E2.80.93353-322\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010352.E2.80.93353_322-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 352\u2013353.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990376.E2.80.93378-324\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990376.E2.80.93378_324-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFYahil1990\">Yahil 1990<\/a>, pp. 376\u2013378.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKwiet200461.2C_69.E2.80.9371.2C_76.E2.80.9377-325\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKwiet200461.2C_69.E2.80.9371.2C_76.E2.80.9377_325-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKwiet2004\">Kwiet 2004<\/a>, pp. 61, 69\u201371, 76\u201377.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKwiet200477.E2.80.9378-326\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKwiet200477.E2.80.9378_326-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKwiet2004\">Kwiet 2004<\/a>, pp. 77\u201378.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEAllen200217-327\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAllen200217_327-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFAllen2002\">Allen 2002<\/a>, p. 17.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer1998536.E2.80.93538-328\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer1998536.E2.80.93538_328-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischer1998\">Fischer 1998<\/a>, pp. 536\u2013538.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELang20033-329\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELang20033_329-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLang2003\">Lang 2003<\/a>, p. 3.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109-330\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109_330-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107.E2.80.93109_330-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 107\u2013109.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200295-331\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200295_331-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2002\">Evans 2002<\/a>, p. 95.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009222.E2.80.93223-332\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009222.E2.80.93223_332-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 222\u2013223.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2008343.E2.80.93348-333\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2008343.E2.80.93348_333-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2008\">Dwork & van Pelt 2008<\/a>, pp. 343\u2013348.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-334\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-334\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10007327\">\"Killing Centers\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Killing+Centers&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007327&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377-335\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377_335-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199876.E2.80.9377_335-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, pp. 76\u201377.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201031-336\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201031_336-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2010\">Fischel 2010<\/a>, p. 31.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015532.E2.80.93533-337\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015532.E2.80.93533_337-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, pp. 532\u2013533.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPaldiel1993184-338\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPaldiel1993184_338-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPaldiel1993\">Paldiel 1993<\/a>, p. 184.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-339\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-339\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/microsoft%20word%20-%206317.pdf\">\"Grojanowski Report\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Grojanowski+Report&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25206317.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-340\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-340\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Memorandum, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Arthur_Sweetser\" title=\"Arthur Sweetser\">Arthur Sweetser<\/a> to Leo Rosten, 1 February 1942, quoted in Eric Hanin, \"War on Our Minds: The American Mass Media in World War II\" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1976), ch. 4, n.6. <a href=\"\/wiki\/OCLC\" title=\"OCLC\">OCLC<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/3640206\">3640206<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-341\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-341\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\">Jakob Weiss (2011). <i>The Lemberg Mosaic<\/i>. New York: Alderbrook Press. p. 409 footnote 199.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Jakob+Weiss&rft.btitle=The+Lemberg+Mosaic&rft.date=2011&rft.genre=book&rft.pages=409+footnote+199&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Alderbrook+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-342\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-342\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Krzysztof Kania, Edward Raczynski, 1891\u20131993, Dyplomata i Polityk (Edward Raczynski, 1891\u20131993, Diplomat and Politician), Wydawnictwo Neriton, Warszawa, 2014, p. 232<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-343\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-343\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/select.nytimes.com\/gst\/abstract.html?res=F00A1FFC3B5D167B93CAA81789D95F468485F9\">\"11 Allies Condemn Nazi War on Jews\"<\/a>. <i>The New York Times<\/i>. 18 December 1942<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">3 February<\/span> 2012<\/span>. <span style=\"font-size:90%; color:#555\">(Subscription required (<span title=\"The site requires a paid subscription to access this page.\" style=\"border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help\">help<\/span>))<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=11+Allies+Condemn+Nazi+War+on+Jews&rft.date=1942-12-18&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fselect.nytimes.com%2Fgst%2Fabstract.html%3Fres%3DF00A1FFC3B5D167B93CAA81789D95F468485F9&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ConwayWiesen-344\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-ConwayWiesen_344-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/John_S._Conway_(historian)\" title=\"John S. Conway (historian)\">Conway, John S.<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/motlc.wiesenthal.com\/site\/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=394983\">\"The First Report About Auschwitz\"<\/a>. <i>Museum of Tolerance Online<\/i>. The Simon Wiesenthal Center<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2006<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+First+Report+About+Auschwitz&rft.au=Conway%2C+John+S.&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Museum+of+Tolerance+Online&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmotlc.wiesenthal.com%2Fsite%2Fpp.asp%3Fc%3DgvKVLcMVIuG%26b%3D394983&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKarny1998553.E2.80.93556-345\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKarny1998553.E2.80.93556_345-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKarny1998\">Karny 1998<\/a>, pp. 553\u2013556.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Brigham19440703-346\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Brigham19440703_346-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\">Brigham, Daniel T. (3 July 1944). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/select.nytimes.com\/gst\/abstract.html?res=FB061FFD3554107B93C1A9178CD85F408485F9\">\"Inquiry confirms Nazi death camps\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_New_York_Times\" title=\"The New York Times\">The New York Times<\/a><\/i><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 October<\/span> 2012<\/span>. <span style=\"font-size:90%; color:#555\">(Subscription required (<span title=\"The site requires a paid subscription to access this page.\" style=\"border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help\">help<\/span>))<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Inquiry+confirms+Nazi+death+camps&rft.aufirst=Daniel+T.&rft.aulast=Brigham&rft.date=1944-07-03&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fselect.nytimes.com%2Fgst%2Fabstract.html%3Fres%3DFB061FFD3554107B93C1A9178CD85F408485F9&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Brigham19440706-347\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Brigham19440706_347-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\">Brigham, Daniel T. (6 July 1944). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/select.nytimes.com\/gst\/abstract.html?res=F20912F83859147B93C4A9178CD85F408485F9\">\"Two death camps places of horror\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_New_York_Times\" title=\"The New York Times\">The New York Times<\/a><\/i><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 October<\/span> 2012<\/span>. <span style=\"font-size:90%; color:#555\">(Subscription required (<span title=\"The site requires a paid subscription to access this page.\" style=\"border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help\">help<\/span>))<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Two+death+camps+places+of+horror&rft.aufirst=Daniel+T.&rft.aulast=Brigham&rft.date=1944-07-06&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fselect.nytimes.com%2Fgst%2Fabstract.html%3Fres%3DF20912F83859147B93C4A9178CD85F408485F9&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-348\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-348\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ruth_Linn\" title=\"Ruth Linn\">Linn, Ruth<\/a> (13 April 2006). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.theguardian.com\/news\/2006\/apr\/13\/guardianobituaries.secondworldwar\">\"Rudolf Vrba (obituary)\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Guardian\" title=\"The Guardian\">The Guardian<\/a><\/i><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Rudolf+Vrba+%28obituary%29&rft.aufirst=Ruth&rft.aulast=Linn&rft.date=2006-04-13&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fnews%2F2006%2Fapr%2F13%2Fguardianobituaries.secondworldwar&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219-349\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219_349-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWeinberg2001\">Weinberg 2001<\/a>, p. 219.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488-350\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_350-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_350-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPolonsky2001\">Polonsky 2001<\/a>, p. 488.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695-351\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695_351-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2012\">Longerich 2012<\/a>, p. 695.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009227.E2.80.93228-352\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009227.E2.80.93228_352-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 227\u2013228.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410.E2.80.93412-353\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410.E2.80.93412_353-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 410\u2013412.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-MapUSHMM-354\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-MapUSHMM_354-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005162&MediaId=382\">\"Map of the Death Marches\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Map+of+the+Death+Marches&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Fmedia_nm.php%3FModuleId%3D10005162%26MediaId%3D382&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKrakowski1989476-355\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKrakowski1989476_355-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKrakowski1989\">Krakowski 1989<\/a>, p. 476.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007648.E2.80.93650-357\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedl.C3.A4nder2007648.E2.80.93650_357-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder2007\">Friedl\u00e4nder 2007<\/a>, pp. 648\u2013650.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165-358\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165_358-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, p. 165.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411-359\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411_359-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 411.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283-360\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283_360-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHitchcock2008\">Hitchcock 2008<\/a>, p. 283.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297-361\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297_361-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHitchcock2008\">Hitchcock 2008<\/a>, p. 297.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340-362\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340_362-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHitchcock2008\">Hitchcock 2008<\/a>, p. 340.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798-363\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798_363-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1985\">Gilbert 1985<\/a>, p. 798.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577-364\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577_364-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFWachsmann2015\">Wachsmann 2015<\/a>, p. 577.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808.E2.80.93809-365\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808.E2.80.93809_365-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1985\">Gilbert 1985<\/a>, pp. 808\u2013809.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810-366\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810_366-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1985\">Gilbert 1985<\/a>, p. 810.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762-367\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762_367-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFCesarani2016\">Cesarani 2016<\/a>, p. 762.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289-368\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289_368-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHitchcock2008\">Hitchcock 2008<\/a>, p. 289.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-11thUSHMM-369\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-11thUSHMM_369-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10006188\">\"The 11th Armoured Division (Great Britain)\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+11th+Armoured+Division+%28Great+Britain%29&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10006188&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-BBUSHMM-370\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-BBUSHMM_370-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005224\">\"Bergen-Belsen\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Bergen-Belsen&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005224&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-371\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-371\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Dimbleby\" title=\"Richard Dimbleby\">Dimbleby, Richard<\/a> (15 April 1945). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/news.bbc.co.uk\/1\/hi\/in_depth\/4445811.stm\">\"Liberation of Belsen\"<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/BBC_News\" title=\"BBC News\">BBC News<\/a>. Retrieved September 2012.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373-372\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373_372-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373_372-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968372.E2.80.93373_372-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBuchheim1968\">Buchheim 1968<\/a>, pp. 372\u2013373.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381-373\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381_373-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBuchheim1968\">Buchheim 1968<\/a>, p. 381.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386.E2.80.93387-374\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386.E2.80.93387_374-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBuchheim1968\">Buchheim 1968<\/a>, pp. 386\u2013387.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning199844.E2.80.9348-375\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning199844.E2.80.9348_375-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning1998\">Browning 1998<\/a>, pp. 44\u201348.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998183.E2.80.93184-376\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998183.E2.80.93184_376-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning1998\">Browning 1998<\/a>, pp. 183\u2013184.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857-377\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857_377-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning1998\">Browning 1998<\/a>, p. 57.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998171.E2.80.93189-378\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1998171.E2.80.93189_378-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBrowning1998\">Browning 1998<\/a>, pp. 171\u2013189.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004227-379\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004227_379-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKudryashov2004\">Kudryashov 2004<\/a>, p. 227.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004230-380\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004230_380-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKudryashov2004\">Kudryashov 2004<\/a>, p. 230.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004232.E2.80.93233-381\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004232.E2.80.93233_381-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKudryashov2004\">Kudryashov 2004<\/a>, pp. 232\u2013233.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234-382\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234_382-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKudryashov2004\">Kudryashov 2004<\/a>, p. 234.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234.E2.80.93235-383\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004234.E2.80.93235_383-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKudryashov2004\">Kudryashov 2004<\/a>, pp. 234\u2013235.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004226-384\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKudryashov2004226_384-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKudryashov2004\">Kudryashov 2004<\/a>, p. 226.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29.-385\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29._385-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHillgruber1989pp._102.E2.80.933_.28Yad_Yashem_p._121-3.29._385-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHillgruber1989\">Hillgruber 1989<\/a>, pp. 102\u20133 (Yad Yashem p. 121-3)..<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998280-386\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998280_386-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFF.C3.B6rster1998\">F\u00f6rster 1998<\/a>, p. 280.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998276-277-387\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEF.C3.B6rster1998276-277_387-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFF.C3.B6rster1998\">F\u00f6rster 1998<\/a>, p. 276-277.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789.E2.80.9390-388\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789.E2.80.9390_388-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMarrus1987\">Marrus 1987<\/a>, pp. 89\u201390.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198971-389\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198971_389-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans1989\">Evans 1989<\/a>, p. 71.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198791-390\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198791_390-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMarrus1987\">Marrus 1987<\/a>, p. 91.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-391\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_391-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_391-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_391-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMarrus1987\">Marrus 1987<\/a>, p. 92.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793-392\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793_392-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMarrus1987\">Marrus 1987<\/a>, p. 93.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-394\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-394\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\">Ezard, John (17 February 2001). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.theguardian.com\/uk\/2001\/feb\/17\/johnezard\">\"Germans knew of Holocaust horror about death camps\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Guardian\" title=\"The Guardian\">The Guardian<\/a><\/i><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Germans+knew+of+Holocaust+horror+about+death+camps&rft.au=Ezard%2C+John&rft.date=2001-02-17&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fuk%2F2001%2Ffeb%2F17%2Fjohnezard&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403-395\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_395-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_395-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_395-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFDawidowicz1986\">Dawidowicz 1986<\/a>, p. 403.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125-396\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_396-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_396-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, p. 125.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-PolishVictims-397\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-PolishVictims_397-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-PolishVictims_397-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005473\">\"Polish Victims\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 June<\/span> 2016<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Polish+Victims&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005473&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-PiotrowskiPIP-398\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-PiotrowskiPIP_398-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-PiotrowskiPIP_398-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-PiotrowskiPIP_398-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.projectinposterum.org\/docs\/poland_WWII_casualties.htm\">\"Poland WWII Casualties\"<\/a>. Project InPosterum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">15 March<\/span> 2007<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.btitle=Poland+WWII+Casualties&rft.genre=unknown&rft.pub=Project+InPosterum&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.projectinposterum.org%2Fdocs%2Fpoland_WWII_casualties.htm&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-RomaUSHMM-399\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-RomaUSHMM_399-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-RomaUSHMM_399-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005219\">\"Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies)\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Genocide+of+European+Roma+%28Gypsies%29&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005219&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2005126-400\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2005126_400-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2005\">Berenbaum 2005<\/a>, p. 126.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396-402\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396_402-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383.E2.80.9396_402-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHancock2004\">Hancock 2004<\/a>, pp. 383\u201396.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-403\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_403-4\"><sup><i><b>e<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHarran2000\">Harran 2000<\/a>, p. 108.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-USHMMJW-404\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-USHMMJW_404-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-USHMMJW_404-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-USHMMJW_404-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10006187\">\"Jehovah's Witnesses\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Jehovah%27s+Witnesses&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10006187&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-405\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_405-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_405-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_405-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMilton2001\">Milton 2001<\/a>, p. 350.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199887-406\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199887_406-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199887_406-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel1998\">Fischel 1998<\/a>, p. 87.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002454-407\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002454_407-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMcKale2002\">McKale 2002<\/a>, p. 454.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBenz2001145-408\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBenz2001145_408-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBenz2001\">Benz 2001<\/a>, p. 145.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797-409\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797_409-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797_409-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauerRozett1990\">Bauer & Rozett 1990<\/a>, p. 1797.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-YadVashemnumbers-410\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-YadVashemnumbers_410-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-YadVashemnumbers_410-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\">Benz, Wolfgang (1996). <i>Dimension des V\u00f6lkermords. Die Zahl der j\u00fcdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus<\/i> (in German). Dtv. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/3-423-04690-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/3-423-04690-2\">3-423-04690-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Benz%2C+Wolfgang&rft.btitle=Dimension+des+V%C3%B6lkermords.+Die+Zahl+der+j%C3%BCdischen+Opfer+des+Nationalsozialismus&rft.date=1996&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=3-423-04690-2&rft.pub=Dtv&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-411\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-411\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org\/jsource\/Holocaust\/tracing.html\">\"The Holocaust: Tracing Lost Family Members\"<\/a>. <i>Jewish Virtual Library<\/i><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 November<\/span> 2013<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Tracing+Lost+Family+Members&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Jewish+Virtual+Library&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewishvirtuallibrary.org%2Fjsource%2FHolocaust%2Ftracing.html&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ReitReviews-412\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-ReitReviews_412-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\">Reitlinger, Gerald. <i>The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939\u20131945<\/i>. New York: Beechhurst Press.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Gerald&rft.aulast=Reitlinger&rft.btitle=The+Final+Solution.+The+Attempt+to+Exterminate+the+Jews+of+Europe%2C+1939%E2%80%931945&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Beechhurst+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span> Review by <cite class=\"citation journal\">Friedman, Philip (1954). \"Review of <i>The Final Solution<\/i>\". <i>Jewish Social Studies<\/i>. <b>16<\/b> (2): 186\u20139. <a href=\"\/wiki\/JSTOR\" title=\"JSTOR\">JSTOR<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/4465231\">4465231<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Review+of+The+Final+Solution&rft.aufirst=Philip&rft.aulast=Friedman&rft.date=1954&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=2&rft.jtitle=Jewish+Social+Studies&rft.pages=186-9&rft.volume=16&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F4465231&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span> See also a review by <cite class=\"citation journal\">Hyamson, Albert M. (1953). \"Review of <i>The Final Solution<\/i>\". <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Affairs_(journal)\" title=\"International Affairs (journal)\">International Affairs<\/a><\/i>. <b>29<\/b> (4): 494\u20135. <a href=\"\/wiki\/JSTOR\" title=\"JSTOR\">JSTOR<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/2606046\">2606046<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Review+of+The+Final+Solution&rft.aufirst=Albert+M.&rft.aulast=Hyamson&rft.date=1953&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=4&rft.jtitle=International+Affairs&rft.pages=494-5&rft.volume=29&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2606046&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799-413\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799_413-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauerRozett1990\">Bauer & Rozett 1990<\/a>, p. 1799.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001245-414\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001245_414-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert2001\">Gilbert 2001<\/a>, p. 245.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett1799-415\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett1799_415-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauerRozett\">Bauer & Rozett<\/a>, p. 1799.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKeren2001115-416\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKeren2001115_416-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKeren2001\">Keren 2001<\/a>, p. 115.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Davies956-417\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Davies956_417-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Norman_Davies\" title=\"Norman Davies\">Davies, Norman<\/a> (2012). <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/God%27s_Playground\" title=\"God's Playground\">God's Playground<\/a><\/i> [<i>Bo\u017ce igrzysko<\/i>]. Otwarte (publishing). p. 956. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/8324015566\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/8324015566\">8324015566<\/a>. <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/books.google.ca\/books?id=TJp-AwAAQBAJ&q=pozbawione+komentarza\">Polish edition, second volume<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Norman&rft.aulast=Davies&rft.btitle=God%27s+Playground&rft.date=2012&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=8324015566&rft.pages=956&rft.pub=Otwarte+%28publishing%29&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Wegner74-418\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Wegner74_418-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bernd_Wegner\" title=\"Bernd Wegner\">Wegner, Bernd<\/a> (1997). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/books.google.ca\/books?id=aESBIpIm6UcC&pg=PA74\"><i>From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia, and the World, 1939\u20131941<\/i><\/a>. Berghahn Books. p. 74. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/1-57181-882-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/1-57181-882-0\">1-57181-882-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Wegner%2C+Bernd&rft.btitle=From+Peace+to+War%3A+Germany%2C+Soviet+Russia%2C+and+the+World%2C+1939%E2%80%931941&rft.date=1997&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=1-57181-882-0&rft.pages=74&rft.pub=Berghahn+Books&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.ca%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DaESBIpIm6UcC%26pg%3DPA74&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-MMABvictims-419\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-MMABvictims_419-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/auschwitz.org\/en\/history\/the-number-of-victims\/\">\"The Number of Victims\"<\/a>. Memorial and Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 June<\/span> 2016<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.btitle=The+Number+of+Victims&rft.genre=unknown&rft.pub=Memorial+and+Museum+Auschwitz-Birkenau&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fauschwitz.org%2Fen%2Fhistory%2Fthe-number-of-victims%2F&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998a62-420\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998a62_420-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiper1998a\">Piper 1998a<\/a>, p. 62.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-421\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-421\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005193\">\"Treblinka\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">11 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Treblinka&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005193&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-422\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-422\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005191\">\"Belzec\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">11 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Belzec&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005191&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-423\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-423\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005194\">\"Chelmno\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">11 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Chelmno&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005194&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-424\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-424\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005192\">\"Sobibor\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">11 June<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Sobibor&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005192&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Reszka2005-425\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Reszka2005_425-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\">Reszka, Pawe\u0142 (23 December 2005). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/web.archive.org\/web\/20110522083141\/http:\/\/en.auschwitz.org.pl\/m\/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44&Itemid=8\">\"Majdanek Victims Enumerated. Changes in the history textbooks?\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gazeta_Wyborcza\" title=\"Gazeta Wyborcza\">Gazeta Wyborcza<\/a><\/i>. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Archived from <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/en.auschwitz.org.pl\/m\/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44&Itemid=8\">the original<\/a> on 22 May 2011<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">30 October<\/span> 2016<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Majdanek+Victims+Enumerated.+Changes+in+the+history+textbooks%3F&rft.aufirst=Pawe%C5%82&rft.aulast=Reszka&rft.date=2005-12-23&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Gazeta+Wyborcza&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fen.auschwitz.org.pl%2Fm%2Findex.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26task%3Dview%26id%3D44%26Itemid%3D8&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000221.E2.80.93222-426\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000221.E2.80.93222_426-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, pp. 221\u2013222.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTERhodes2002274-427\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERhodes2002274_427-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFRhodes2002\">Rhodes 2002<\/a>, p. 274.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9331-428\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629.E2.80.9331_428-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBlack2016\">Black 2016<\/a>, pp. 29\u201331.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELaqueu200151.E2.80.9352-429\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELaqueu200151.E2.80.9352_429-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLaqueu2001\">Laqueu 2001<\/a>, pp. 51\u201352.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert199356-430\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert199356_430-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1993\">Gilbert 1993<\/a>, p. 56.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert199349-431\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert199349_431-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGilbert1993\">Gilbert 1993<\/a>, p. 49.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802-432\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-4\"><sup><i><b>e<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-5\"><sup><i><b>f<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-6\"><sup><i><b>g<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799.E2.80.931802_432-7\"><sup><i><b>h<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauerRozett1990\">Bauer & Rozett 1990<\/a>, pp. 1799\u20131802.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-HEn1-433\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-HEn1_433-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005468\">\"German Jewish Refugees, 1933\u20131939\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_Encyclopedia\" title=\"Holocaust Encyclopedia\">Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/a><\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=German+Jewish+Refugees%2C+1933%E2%80%931939&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005468&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008174.E2.80.93175-437\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008174.E2.80.93175_437-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2008\">Evans 2008<\/a>, pp. 174\u2013175.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976359-438\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976359_438-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder1976\">Snyder 1976<\/a>, p. 359.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz201123-439\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz201123_439-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFritz2011\">Fritz 2011<\/a>, p. 23.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012450.E2.80.93452-440\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012450.E2.80.93452_440-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2012\">Longerich 2012<\/a>, pp. 450\u2013452.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz201193-441\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz201193_441-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFritz2011\">Fritz 2011<\/a>, p. 93.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMazower2008204-205-442\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMazower2008204-205_442-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMazower2008\">Mazower 2008<\/a>, p. 204-205.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMazower2008208.E2.80.93211-443\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMazower2008208.E2.80.93211_443-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMazower2008\">Mazower 2008<\/a>, pp. 208\u2013211.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEM.C3.BCllerUebersch.C3.A4r2002285-444\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEM.C3.BCllerUebersch.C3.A4r2002285_444-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFM.C3.BCllerUebersch.C3.A4r2002\">M\u00fcller & Uebersch\u00e4r 2002<\/a>, p. 285.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011p317-445\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011p317_445-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFritz2011p317\">Fritz, 2011 & p317<\/a>.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Rummel1992-446\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-Rummel1992_446-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\">Rummel, R.J. (1992). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.hawaii.edu\/powerkills\/NAZIS.CHAP1.HTM\"><i>Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder<\/i><\/a>. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publications<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 June<\/span> 2014<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=R.J.&rft.aulast=Rummel&rft.btitle=Democide%3A+Nazi+Genocide+and+Mass+Murder&rft.date=1992&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+Brunswick%2C+NJ&rft.pub=Transaction+Publications&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hawaii.edu%2Fpowerkills%2FNAZIS.CHAP1.HTM&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001153-447\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001153_447-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGellately2001\">Gellately 2001<\/a>, p. 153.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerghahn199932.E2.80.9333-448\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerghahn199932.E2.80.9333_448-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerghahn1999\">Berghahn 1999<\/a>, pp. 32\u201333.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001154-449\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001154_449-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGellately2001\">Gellately 2001<\/a>, p. 154.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-450\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-450\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Israel_Gutman\" title=\"Israel Gutman\">Israel Gutman<\/a>, <i>Unequal Victims<\/i> Holocaust Library 1985<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295-451\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295_451-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295_451-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiotrowski1998\">Piotrowski 1998<\/a>, p. 295.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-452\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-452\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation book\">Nurowski, Roman (1960). <i>1939\u20131945 War Losses in Poland<\/i>. Poznan: Wydawnictwo Zachodnie.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Roman&rft.aulast=Nurowski&rft.btitle=1939%E2%80%931945+War+Losses+in+Poland&rft.date=1960&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Poznan&rft.pub=Wydawnictwo+Zachodnie&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998305-453\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998305_453-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFPiotrowski1998\">Piotrowski 1998<\/a>, p. 305.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELatawski2001216.E2.80.93217-454\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELatawski2001216.E2.80.93217_454-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLatawski2001\">Latawski 2001<\/a>, pp. 216\u2013217.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTETomasevich2001744-455\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETomasevich2001744_455-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFTomasevich2001\">Tomasevich 2001<\/a>, p. 744.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201154.E2.80.9355-456\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201154.E2.80.9355_456-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, pp. 54\u201355.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-457\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-457\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005449\">\"Jasenovac\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Jasenovac&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005449&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155-56-458\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155-56_458-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, p. 55-56.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-459\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-459\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www1.yadvashem.org\/odot_pdf\/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205930.pdf\">\"Croatia\"<\/a> <span style=\"font-size:85%;\">(PDF)<\/span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center<\/i>. Yad Vashem<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Croatia&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2FMicrosoft%2520Word%2520-%25205930.pdf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155.E2.80.9356-460\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201155.E2.80.9356_460-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, pp. 55\u201356.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173-461\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173_461-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, p. 73.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173.E2.80.9374-462\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201173.E2.80.9374_462-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, pp. 73\u201374.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201198-463\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201198_463-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, p. 98.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMojzes201194.E2.80.9395-464\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMojzes201194.E2.80.9395_464-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMojzes2011\">Mojzes 2011<\/a>, pp. 94\u201395.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171-465\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171_465-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2009170.E2.80.93171_465-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBergen2009\">Bergen 2009<\/a>, pp. 170\u2013171.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011333.E2.80.93334-466\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011333.E2.80.93334_466-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFritz2011\">Fritz 2011<\/a>, pp. 333\u2013334.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ReferenceA-467\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-ReferenceA_467-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The Russian Academy of Science Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/5-86789-023-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/5-86789-023-6\">5-86789-023-6<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010250.E2.80.93251-468\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010250.E2.80.93251_468-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder2010\">Snyder 2010<\/a>, pp. 250\u2013251.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-469\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-469\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10007178\">\"Nazi Persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 September<\/span> 2012<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Nazi+Persecution+of+Soviet+Prisoners+of+War&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007178&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich201050-470\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich201050_470-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, p. 50.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047-471\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047_471-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047_471-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\">Niewyk & Nicosia 2000<\/a>, p. 47.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998453-472\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998453_472-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer1998\">Bauer 1998<\/a>, p. 453.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421-473\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421_473-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418.E2.80.93421_473-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2010\">Longerich 2010<\/a>, pp. 418\u2013421.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444-474\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444_474-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444_474-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer1998\">Bauer 1998<\/a>, p. 444.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998445-475\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998445_475-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer1998\">Bauer 1998<\/a>, p. 445.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998446-476\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998446_476-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBauer1998\">Bauer 1998<\/a>, p. 446.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006126-477\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006126_477-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBerenbaum2006\">Berenbaum 2006<\/a>, p. 126.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELusane200397.E2.80.938-478\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELusane200397.E2.80.938_478-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLusane2003\">Lusane 2003<\/a>, pp. 97\u20138.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-479\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-479\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10005479\">\"Blacks During the Holocaust\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Blacks+During+the+Holocaust&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005479&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton200021-480\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton200021_480-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLifton2000\">Lifton 2000<\/a>, p. 21.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEProctor1988101.E2.80.93103-481\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEProctor1988101.E2.80.93103_481-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFProctor1988\">Proctor 1988<\/a>, pp. 101\u2013103.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEProctor1988106.E2.80.93108-482\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEProctor1988106.E2.80.93108_482-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFProctor1988\">Proctor 1988<\/a>, pp. 106\u2013108.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann1991142.E2.80.93149-483\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann1991142.E2.80.93149_483-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBurleighWippermann1991\">Burleigh & Wippermann 1991<\/a>, pp. 142\u2013149.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEKershaw2000252.E2.80.93261-484\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKershaw2000252.E2.80.93261_484-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFKershaw2000\">Kershaw 2000<\/a>, pp. 252\u2013261.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton2000142-485\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton2000142_485-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLifton2000\">Lifton 2000<\/a>, p. 142.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEStrous2007-486\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStrous2007_486-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFStrous2007\">Strous 2007<\/a>.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton200090.E2.80.9395-487\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton200090.E2.80.9395_487-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLifton2000\">Lifton 2000<\/a>, pp. 90\u201395.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-Steakley74-488\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-Steakley74_488-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-Steakley74_488-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-Steakley74_488-2\"><sup><i><b>c<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-Steakley74_488-3\"><sup><i><b>d<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Steakley, James. <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.fordham.edu\/halsall\/pwh\/steakley-nazis.html\">\"Homosexuals and the Third Reich\"<\/a>, <i>The Body Politic<\/i>, Issue 11, January\/February 1974.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237-489\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237_489-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFLongerich2012\">Longerich 2012<\/a>, p. 237.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGiles199245.E2.80.937-490\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGiles199245.E2.80.937_490-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGiles1992\">Giles 1992<\/a>, pp. 45\u20137.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-491\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-491\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10007332\">\"Non-Jewish Resistance\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Non-Jewish+Resistance&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007332&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-492\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-492\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/wlc\/en\/article.php?ModuleId=10007454\">\"Commissar Order\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Commissar+Order&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007454&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184-493\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184_493-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFFischel2010\">Fischel 2010<\/a>, p. 184.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346.E2.80.93349-494\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346.E2.80.93349_494-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFMilton2001\">Milton 2001<\/a>, pp. 346\u2013349.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251-495\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251_495-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFGarbe2001\">Garbe 2001<\/a>, p. 251.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259-496\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259_496-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSamuels2009\">Samuels 2009<\/a>, p. 259.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-497\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-497\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\">Grobman, Alex. <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.holocaust-trc.org\/the-uniqueness-of-the-holocaust\/\">\"The Uniqueness of the Holocaust\"<\/a>. <i>Holocaust Teacher Resource Center<\/i>. Holocaust Education Foundation<span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">1 March<\/span> 2016<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Uniqueness+of+the+Holocaust&rft.au=Grobman%2C+Alex&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Teacher+Resource+Center&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.holocaust-trc.org%2Fthe-uniqueness-of-the-holocaust%2F&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385-498\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385_498-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFEvans2015\">Evans 2015<\/a>, p. 385.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris2006106-499\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2006106_499-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFHarris2006\">Harris 2006<\/a>, p. 106.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255-500\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255_500-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFSnyder1976\">Snyder 1976<\/a>, p. 255.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-501\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_501-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_501-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBiddiss2001\">Biddiss 2001<\/a>, p. 643.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643.E2.80.93644-503\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643.E2.80.93644_503-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBiddiss2001\">Biddiss 2001<\/a>, pp. 643\u2013644.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646-504\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646_504-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFBiddiss2001\">Biddiss 2001<\/a>, p. 646.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEJacobs20053-505\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJacobs20053_505-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFJacobs2005\">Jacobs 2005<\/a>, p. 3.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531.E2.80.93532-506\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531.E2.80.93532_506-0\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><a href=\"#CITEREFZweig2001\">Zweig 2001<\/a>, pp. 531\u2013532.<\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-RestitutionJVL-507\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">^ <a href=\"#cite_ref-RestitutionJVL_507-0\"><sup><i><b>a<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a> <a href=\"#cite_ref-RestitutionJVL_507-1\"><sup><i><b>b<\/b><\/i><\/sup><\/a><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation web\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org\/jsource\/Holocaust\/reparations.html\">\"Holocaust Restitution: German Reparations\"<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Virtual_Library\" title=\"Jewish Virtual Library\">Jewish Virtual Library<\/a><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">29 May<\/span> 2017<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.btitle=Holocaust+Restitution%3A+German+Reparations&rft.genre=unknown&rft.pub=Jewish+Virtual+Library&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewishvirtuallibrary.org%2Fjsource%2FHolocaust%2Freparations.html&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-508\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-508\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.spiegel.de\/international\/germany\/germany-to-pay-772-million-euros-in-reparations-to-holocaust-survivors-a-902528.html\">\"Holocaust Reparations: Germany to Pay 772 Million Euros to Survivors\"<\/a>. <i>Spiegel Online International<\/i>. 29 March 2013.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Holocaust+Reparations%3A+Germany+to+Pay+772+Million+Euros+to+Survivors&rft.date=2013-03-29&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Spiegel+Online+International&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.spiegel.de%2Finternational%2Fgermany%2Fgermany-to-pay-772-million-euros-in-reparations-to-holocaust-survivors-a-902528.html&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-509\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><b><a href=\"#cite_ref-509\">^<\/a><\/b><\/span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><cite class=\"citation news\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.lemonde.fr\/ameriques\/article\/2014\/12\/05\/etats-unis-paris-va-indemniser-les-victimes-de-la-shoah-transportees-par-la-sncf_4535530_3222.html\">\"Pour le r\u00f4le de la SNCF dans la Shoah, Paris va verser 100 000 euros \u00e0 chaque d\u00e9port\u00e9 am\u00e9ricain\"<\/a>. <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Le_Monde\" title=\"Le Monde\">Le Monde<\/a><\/i> (in French).<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Pour+le+r%C3%B4le+de+la+SNCF+dans+la+Shoah%2C+Paris+va+verser+100+000+euros+%C3%A0+chaque+d%C3%A9port%C3%A9+am%C3%A9ricain&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Le+Monde&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lemonde.fr%2Fameriques%2Farticle%2F2014%2F12%2F05%2Fetats-unis-paris-va-indemniser-les-victimes-de-la-shoah-transportees-par-la-sncf_4535530_3222.html&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<\/ol>\n<\/div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"References\">References<\/span><\/h2>\n<div class=\"refbegin refbegin-hanging-indents columns references-column-width\" style=\"-moz-column-width: 35em; -webkit-column-width: 35em; column-width: 35em;\">\n<dl>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFAllen2002\" class=\"citation book\">Allen, Michael Thad (2002). <i>The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps<\/i>. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8078-2677-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8078-2677-4\">0-8078-2677-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Michael+Thad&rft.aulast=Allen&rft.btitle=The+Business+of+Genocide%3A+The+SS%2C+Slave+Labor%2C+and+the+Concentration+Camps&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-8078-2677-4&rft.place=Chapel+Hill%2C+NC&rft.pub=University+of+North+Carolina+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFArad1987\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yitzhak_Arad\" title=\"Yitzhak Arad\">Arad, Yitzhak<\/a> (1987). <i>Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-253-21305-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-253-21305-1\">978-0-253-21305-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Yitzhak&rft.aulast=Arad&rft.btitle=Belzec%2C+Sobibor%2C+Treblinka%3A+The+Operation+Reinhard+Death+Camps&rft.date=1987&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-253-21305-1&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFAtkins2009\" class=\"citation book\">Atkins, Stephen E. (2009). <i>Holocaust Denial as an International Movement<\/i>. Westport, CT: Praeger. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-313-34538-8\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-313-34538-8\">978-0-313-34538-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Stephen+E.&rft.aulast=Atkins&rft.btitle=Holocaust+Denial+as+an+International+Movement&rft.date=2009&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-313-34538-8&rft.place=Westport%2C+CT&rft.pub=Praeger&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBauer1997\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yehuda_Bauer\" title=\"Yehuda Bauer\">Bauer, Yehuda<\/a> (1997) [1979]. \"Forms of Jewish Resistance\". In Niewyk, Donald L. <i>The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation<\/i>. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 116\u2013132. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-669-41700-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-669-41700-9\">0-669-41700-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Forms+of+Jewish+Resistance&rft.aufirst=Yehuda&rft.aulast=Bauer&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Problems+and+Perspectives+of+Interpretation&rft.date=1997&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-669-41700-9&rft.pages=116-132&rft.place=Boston&rft.pub=Houghton+Mifflin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBauer1998\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1998) [1994]. \"Gypsies\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yisrael_Gutman\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Yisrael Gutman\">Gutman, Yisrael<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Berenbaum, Michael<\/a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 441\u2013455. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\">0-253-20884-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Gypsies&rft.aufirst=Yehuda&rft.aulast=Bauer&rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&rft.pages=441-455&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBauer2001\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2001) [1982]. <i>A History of the Holocaust<\/i> (Revised ed.). New York: Franklin Watts. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-531-15576-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-531-15576-5\">0-531-15576-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Yehuda&rft.aulast=Bauer&rft.btitle=A+History+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2001&rft.edition=Revised&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-531-15576-5&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Franklin+Watts&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBauer1989\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1989). \"Rescue by negotiations? Jewish attempts to negotiate with the Nazis\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Marrus\" title=\"Michael Marrus\">Michael R. Marrus<\/a>. <i>The Nazi Holocaust, Part 9: The End of the Holocaust<\/i>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Walter_de_Gruyter\" title=\"Walter de Gruyter\">Walter de Gruyter<\/a>. pp. 3\u201321.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Rescue+by+negotiations%3F+Jewish+attempts+to+negotiate+with+the+Nazis&rft.aufirst=Yehuda&rft.aulast=Bauer&rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Holocaust%2C+Part+9%3A+The+End+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1989&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=3-21&rft.pub=Walter+de+Gruyter&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBauer2002\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2002). <i>Rethinking the Holocaust<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-09300-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-09300-4\">0-300-09300-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Yehuda&rft.aulast=Bauer&rft.btitle=Rethinking+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-300-09300-4&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBauerRozett1990\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yehuda_Bauer\" title=\"Yehuda Bauer\">Bauer, Yehuda<\/a>; Rozett, Robert (1990). \"Appendix\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Israel_Gutman\" title=\"Israel Gutman\">Gutman, Israel<\/a>. <i>Encyclopedia of the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Macmillan Library Reference. pp. 1797\u20131802. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-02-896090-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-02-896090-4\">0-02-896090-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Appendix&rft.au=Rozett%2C+Robert&rft.aufirst=Yehuda&rft.aulast=Bauer&rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1990&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-02-896090-4&rft.pages=1797-1802&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Macmillan+Library+Reference&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBaumel2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). \"Concentration Camps\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 133\u2013135. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Concentration+Camps&rft.aufirst=Judith+Tydor&rft.aulast=Baumel&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=133-135&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBen-RafaelGl.C3.B6cknerSternberg2011\" class=\"citation book\">Ben-Rafael, Eliezer; Gl\u00f6ckner, Olaf; Sternberg, Yitzhak (2011). <i>Jews and Jewish Education in Germany Today<\/i>. Leiden: Brill. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-90-04-25329-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-90-04-25329-2\">978-90-04-25329-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Gl%C3%B6ckner%2C+Olaf&rft.au=Sternberg%2C+Yitzhak&rft.aufirst=Eliezer&rft.aulast=Ben-Rafael&rft.btitle=Jews+and+Jewish+Education+in+Germany+Today&rft.date=2011&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-90-04-25329-2&rft.place=Leiden&rft.pub=Brill&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBenz2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Benz, Wolfgang (2001). \"Death Toll\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 137\u2013145. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Death+Toll&rft.aufirst=Wolfgang&rft.aulast=Benz&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=137-145&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBenz2007\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2007). <i>Die 101 wichtigsten Fragen- das dritte Reich<\/i> (Second ed.). C.H. Beck.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Wolfgang&rft.aulast=Benz&rft.btitle=Die+101+wichtigsten+Fragen-+das+dritte+Reich&rft.date=2007&rft.edition=Second&rft.genre=book&rft.pub=C.H.+Beck&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBerenbaum2006\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Berenbaum, Michael<\/a> (2006). <i>The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/i> (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-8018-8358-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-8018-8358-3\">978-0-8018-8358-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Michael&rft.aulast=Berenbaum&rft.btitle=The+World+Must+Know%3A+The+History+of+the+Holocaust+as+Told+in+the+United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&rft.date=2006&rft.edition=2nd&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-8018-8358-3&rft.place=Washington%2C+DC&rft.pub=United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBergen2009\" class=\"citation book\">Bergen, Doris (2009). <i>War & Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust<\/i> (Second, revised ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-7425-5715-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-7425-5715-4\">978-0-7425-5715-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Doris&rft.aulast=Bergen&rft.btitle=War+%26+Genocide%3A+A+Concise+History+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2009&rft.edition=Second%2C+revised&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-7425-5715-4&rft.place=Lanham%2C+MD&rft.pub=Rowman+%26+Littlefield&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBerghahn1999\" class=\"citation journal\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Volker_Berghahn\" title=\"Volker Berghahn\">Berghahn, Volker R.<\/a> (1999). \"Germans and Poles, 1871\u20131945\". <i>Yearbook of European Studies<\/i>. <b>13<\/b>: 15\u201336.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Germans+and+Poles%2C+1871%E2%80%931945&rft.aufirst=Volker+R.&rft.aulast=Berghahn&rft.date=1999&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Yearbook+of+European+Studies&rft.pages=15-36&rft.volume=13&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBiddiss2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Biddiss, Michael (2001). \"Nuremberg trials\". In Dear, Ian; Foot, Richard D. <i>The Oxford Companion to World War II<\/i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 643\u2013646. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-19-280670-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-19-280670-X\">0-19-280670-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Nuremberg+trials&rft.aufirst=Michael&rft.aulast=Biddiss&rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Companion+to+World+War+II&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-19-280670-X&rft.pages=643-646&rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBlack1999\" class=\"citation book\">Black, Edwin (1999) [1984]. <i>The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact Between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine<\/i>. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0914153139\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0914153139\">978-0914153139<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Edwin&rft.aulast=Black&rft.btitle=The+Transfer+Agreement%3A+The+Dramatic+Story+of+the+Pact+Between+the+Third+Reich+and+Jewish+Palestine&rft.date=1999&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0914153139&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&rft.pub=Brookline+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBlack2016\" class=\"citation book\">Black, Jeremy (2016). <i>The Holocaust: History and Memory<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-253-02214-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-253-02214-1\">978-0-253-02214-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Jeremy&rft.aulast=Black&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+History+and+Memory&rft.date=2016&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-253-02214-1&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBloxham2000\" class=\"citation book\">Bloxham, Donald (2000). <i>Extermination through work: Jewish Slave Labour under the Third Reich<\/i>. <b>1<\/b>. Holocaust Educational Trust Research Papers.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Donald&rft.aulast=Bloxham&rft.btitle=Extermination+through+work%3A+Jewish+Slave+Labour+under+the+Third+Reich&rft.date=2000&rft.genre=book&rft.pub=Holocaust+Educational+Trust+Research+Papers&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBreitman1991\" class=\"citation book\">Breitman, Richard (1991). <i>The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution<\/i>. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-394-56841-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-394-56841-9\">0-394-56841-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard&rft.aulast=Breitman&rft.btitle=The+Architect+of+Genocide%3A+Himmler+and+the+Final+Solution&rft.date=1991&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-394-56841-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Alfred+A.+Knopf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBrowning2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Christopher_Browning\" title=\"Christopher Browning\">Browning, Christopher<\/a> (2001). \"Madagascar Plan\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 407\u2013409. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Madagascar+Plan&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft.aulast=Browning&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=407-409&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBrowning1986\" class=\"citation journal\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1986). \"Nazi Ghettoization Policy in Poland: 1939\u201341\". <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Central_European_History\" title=\"Central European History\">Central European History<\/a><\/i>. <b>19<\/b> (4): 343\u2013368. <a href=\"\/wiki\/JSTOR\" title=\"JSTOR\">JSTOR<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/4546081\">4546081<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Digital_object_identifier\" title=\"Digital object identifier\">doi<\/a>:<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/doi.org\/10.1017%2Fs0008938900011158\">10.1017\/s0008938900011158<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Nazi+Ghettoization+Policy+in+Poland%3A+1939%E2%80%9341&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft.aulast=Browning&rft.date=1986&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=4&rft.jtitle=Central+European+History&rft.pages=343-368&rft.volume=19&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F4546081&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1017%2Fs0008938900011158&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBrowning1998\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1998) [1992]. <i>Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland<\/i>. New York: HarperPerennial. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-06-099506-8\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-06-099506-8\">0-06-099506-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft.aulast=Browning&rft.btitle=Ordinary+Men%3A+Reserve+Police+Battalion+101+and+the+Final+Solution+in+Poland&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-06-099506-8&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=HarperPerennial&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBrowning2004\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2004). <i>The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 \u2013 March 1942<\/i>. Jerusalem: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft.aulast=Browning&rft.btitle=The+Origins+of+the+Final+Solution%3A+The+Evolution+of+Nazi+Jewish+Policy%2C+September+1939+%E2%80%93+March+1942&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Jerusalem&rft.pub=Yad+Vashem&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBuchheim1968\" class=\"citation book\">Buchheim, Hans (1968). \"Command and Compliance\". In Helmut Krausnick; Hans Buchheim; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Broszat\" title=\"Martin Broszat\">Martin Broszat<\/a>; Hans-Adolf Jacobsen. <i>The Anatomy of the SS State<\/i>. New York: Walker and Company. pp. 303\u2013396.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Command+and+Compliance&rft.aufirst=Hans&rft.aulast=Buchheim&rft.btitle=The+Anatomy+of+the+SS+State&rft.date=1968&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=303-396&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Walker+and+Company&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBurleigh2001\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Burleigh\" title=\"Michael Burleigh\">Burleigh, Michael<\/a> (2001). <i>The Third Reich: A New History<\/i>. New York: Hill and Wang. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8090-9326-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8090-9326-X\">0-8090-9326-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Michael&rft.aulast=Burleigh&rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich%3A+A+New+History&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-8090-9326-X&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Hill+and+Wang&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFBurleighWippermann1991\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Burleigh\" title=\"Michael Burleigh\">Burleigh, Michael<\/a>; Wippermann, Wolfgang (1991). <i>The Racial State: Germany 1933\u20131945<\/i>. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-521-39802-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-521-39802-9\">0-521-39802-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Wippermann%2C+Wolfgang&rft.aufirst=Michael&rft.aulast=Burleigh&rft.btitle=The+Racial+State%3A+Germany+1933%E2%80%931945&rft.date=1991&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-521-39802-9&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+UK&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFCesarani2004\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/David_Cesarani\" title=\"David Cesarani\">Cesarani, David<\/a> (2004). <i>Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes, and Trial of a 'Desk Murderer'<\/i>. [New York]: Da Capo Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-306-81476-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-306-81476-1\">978-0-306-81476-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=David&rft.aulast=Cesarani&rft.btitle=Becoming+Eichmann%3A+Rethinking+the+Life%2C+Crimes%2C+and+Trial+of+a+%27Desk+Murderer%27&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-306-81476-1&rft.place=%5BNew+York%5D&rft.pub=Da+Capo+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFCesarani2016\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2016). <i>Final Solution: The Fate of the Jews 1933\u20131949<\/i>. New York: St. Martin's Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-1-250-00083-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-1-250-00083-5\">978-1-250-00083-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=David&rft.aulast=Cesarani&rft.btitle=Final+Solution%3A+The+Fate+of+the+Jews+1933%E2%80%931949&rft.date=2016&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-1-250-00083-5&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=St.+Martin%27s+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFChase1999\" class=\"citation book\">Chase, Edward T. (1999) [1984]. \"Preface\". <i>The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact Between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine<\/i>. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0914153139\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0914153139\">978-0914153139<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Preface&rft.aufirst=Edward+T.&rft.aulast=Chase&rft.btitle=The+Transfer+Agreement%3A+The+Dramatic+Story+of+the+Pact+Between+the+Third+Reich+and+Jewish+Palestine&rft.date=1999&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=978-0914153139&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&rft.pub=Brookline+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFCrowe2008\" class=\"citation book\">Crowe, David M. (2008). <i>The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath<\/i>. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-8133-4325-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-8133-4325-9\">978-0-8133-4325-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=David+M.&rft.aulast=Crowe&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Roots%2C+History%2C+and+Aftermath&rft.date=2008&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-8133-4325-9&rft.place=Boulder%2C+CO&rft.pub=Westview+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFDawidowicz1986\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lucy_Dawidowicz\" title=\"Lucy Dawidowicz\">Dawidowicz, Lucy<\/a> (1986) [1975]. <i>The War Against the Jews: 1933\u20131945<\/i> (Tenth Anniversary ed.). New York: Bantam. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-553-34532-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-553-34532-X\">0-553-34532-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Lucy&rft.aulast=Dawidowicz&rft.btitle=The+War+Against+the+Jews%3A+1933%E2%80%931945&rft.date=1986&rft.edition=Tenth+Anniversary&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-553-34532-X&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Bantam&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2008\" class=\"citation book\">Dwork, Deborah; van Pelt, Robert Jan (2008). <i>Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present<\/i> (Revised and expanded ed.). New York: Norton. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-393-32291-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-393-32291-0\">978-0-393-32291-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=van+Pelt%2C+Robert+Jan&rft.aufirst=Deborah&rft.aulast=Dwork&rft.btitle=Auschwitz%3A+1270+to+the+Present&rft.date=2008&rft.edition=Revised+and+expanded&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-393-32291-0&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Norton&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003\" class=\"citation book\">Dwork, Deborah; van Pelt, Robert Jan (2003). <i>Holocaust: A History<\/i>. New York: W. W. Norton. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-393-05188-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-393-05188-9\">0-393-05188-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=van+Pelt%2C+Robert+Jan&rft.aufirst=Deborah&rft.aulast=Dwork&rft.btitle=Holocaust%3A+A+History&rft.date=2003&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-393-05188-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFEvans2004\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_J._Evans\" title=\"Richard J. Evans\">Evans, Richard J.<\/a> (2004). <i>The Coming of the Third Reich<\/i>. New York: Penguin. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/1-59420-004-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/1-59420-004-1\">1-59420-004-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&rft.aulast=Evans&rft.btitle=The+Coming+of+the+Third+Reich&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=1-59420-004-1&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Penguin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFEvans1989\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1989). <i>In Hitler's Shadow<\/i>. New York, NY: Pantheon.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&rft.aulast=Evans&rft.btitle=In+Hitler%27s+Shadow&rft.date=1989&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+York%2C+NY&rft.pub=Pantheon&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFEvans2002\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2002). <i>Lying About Hitler: The Holocaust, History and the David Irving Trial<\/i>. New York: Basic Books. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-465-02153-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-465-02153-0\">0-465-02153-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&rft.aulast=Evans&rft.btitle=Lying+About+Hitler%3A+The+Holocaust%2C+History+and+the+David+Irving+Trial&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-465-02153-0&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Basic+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFEvans2008\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2008). <i>The Third Reich at War<\/i>. New York: Penguin. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-1-59420-206-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-1-59420-206-3\">978-1-59420-206-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&rft.aulast=Evans&rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich+at+War&rft.date=2008&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-1-59420-206-3&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Penguin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFEvans2015\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2015). <i>The Third Reich in History and Memory<\/i>. London: Abacus. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-349-14075-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-349-14075-9\">978-0-349-14075-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&rft.aulast=Evans&rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich+in+History+and+Memory&rft.date=2015&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-349-14075-9&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Abacus&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFEvans2005\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2005). <i>The Third Reich in Power<\/i>. New York: Penguin. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/1-59420-074-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/1-59420-074-2\">1-59420-074-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&rft.aulast=Evans&rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich+in+Power&rft.date=2005&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=1-59420-074-2&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Penguin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFein1979\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Helen_Fein\" title=\"Helen Fein\">Fein, Helen<\/a> (1979). <i>Accounting for Genocide: National Responses and Jewish Victimization During the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Free Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-02-910220-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-02-910220-0\">0-02-910220-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Helen&rft.aulast=Fein&rft.btitle=Accounting+for+Genocide%3A+National+Responses+and+Jewish+Victimization+During+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1979&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-02-910220-0&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Free+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFischel1998\" class=\"citation book\">Fischel, Jack R. (1998). <i>The Holocaust<\/i>. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-313-29879-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-313-29879-3\">0-313-29879-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Jack+R.&rft.aulast=Fischel&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-313-29879-3&rft.place=Westport%2C+CT&rft.pub=Greenwood+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFischel2010\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2010). <i>Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust<\/i> (Second ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-8108-6774-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-8108-6774-1\">978-0-8108-6774-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Jack+R.&rft.aulast=Fischel&rft.btitle=Historical+Dictionary+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2010&rft.edition=Second&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-8108-6774-1&rft.place=Lanham%2C+MD&rft.pub=Scarecrow+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFischer2002\" class=\"citation book\">Fischer, Conan (2002). <i>The Rise of the Nazis<\/i>. Manchester: Manchester University Press.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Conan&rft.aulast=Fischer&rft.btitle=The+Rise+of+the+Nazis&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Manchester&rft.pub=Manchester+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFischer1998\" class=\"citation book\">Fischer, Klaus (1998) [1995]. <i>Nazi Germany: A New History<\/i>. New York: Barnes & Noble. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-7607-0736-7\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-7607-0736-7\">0-7607-0736-7<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Klaus&rft.aulast=Fischer&rft.btitle=Nazi+Germany%3A+A+New+History&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-7607-0736-7&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Barnes+%26+Noble&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFisher2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Fisher, Ronit (2001). \"Medical Experimentation\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 410\u2013414. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Medical+Experimentation&rft.aufirst=Ronit&rft.aulast=Fisher&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=410-414&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFleming1994\" class=\"citation book\">Fleming, Gerald (1994) [1984]. <i>Hitler and the Final Solution<\/i>. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-520-06022-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-520-06022-9\">0-520-06022-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Gerald&rft.aulast=Fleming&rft.btitle=Hitler+and+the+Final+Solution&rft.date=1994&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-520-06022-9&rft.place=Berkeley+%26+Los+Angeles%2C+CA&rft.pub=University+of+California+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFF.C3.B6rster1998\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">F\u00f6rster, J\u00fcrgen (1998). \"Complicity or Entanglement? Wehrmacht, War, and Holocaust\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Berenbaum, Michael<\/a>; Peck, Abraham. <i>The Holocaust and History<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 266\u2013283. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-253-33374-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-253-33374-1\">0-253-33374-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Complicity+or+Entanglement%3F+Wehrmacht%2C+War%2C+and+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=J%C3%BCrgen&rft.aulast=F%C3%B6rster&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+and+History&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-253-33374-1&rft.pages=266-283&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFriedlander1994\" class=\"citation journal\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Henry_Friedlander\" title=\"Henry Friedlander\">Friedlander, Henry<\/a> (1994). \"Step by Step: The Expansion of Murder, 1939\u20131941\". <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_Studies_Review\" title=\"German Studies Review\">German Studies Review<\/a><\/i>. <b>17<\/b> (3): 495\u2013507. <a href=\"\/wiki\/JSTOR\" title=\"JSTOR\">JSTOR<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/1431896\">1431896<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Digital_object_identifier\" title=\"Digital object identifier\">doi<\/a>:<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/doi.org\/10.2307%2F1431896\">10.2307\/1431896<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Step+by+Step%3A+The+Expansion+of+Murder%2C+1939%E2%80%931941&rft.aufirst=Henry&rft.aulast=Friedlander&rft.date=1994&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=3&rft.jtitle=German+Studies+Review&rft.pages=495-507&rft.volume=17&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F1431896&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F1431896&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder1997\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Saul_Friedl%C3%A4nder\" title=\"Saul Friedl\u00e4nder\">Friedl\u00e4nder, Saul<\/a> (1997). <i>Nazi Germany and the Jews: The Years of Persecution 1933\u20131939<\/i>. New York: Harper Collins. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-06-019042-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-06-019042-6\">0-06-019042-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Saul&rft.aulast=Friedl%C3%A4nder&rft.btitle=Nazi+Germany+and+the+Jews%3A+The+Years+of+Persecution+1933%E2%80%931939&rft.date=1997&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-06-019042-6&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Harper+Collins&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFriedl.C3.A4nder2007\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2007). <i>The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1939\u20131945<\/i>. New York: Harper Perennial. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-06-093048-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-06-093048-6\">978-0-06-093048-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Saul&rft.aulast=Friedl%C3%A4nder&rft.btitle=The+Years+of+Extermination%3A+Nazi+Germany+and+the+Jews+1939%E2%80%931945&rft.date=2007&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-06-093048-6&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Harper+Perennial&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFFritz2011\" class=\"citation book\">Fritz, Stephen (2011). <i>Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East<\/i>. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-8131-3416-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-8131-3416-1\">978-0-8131-3416-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Stephen&rft.aulast=Fritz&rft.btitle=Ostkrieg%3A+Hitler%27s+War+of+Extermination+in+the+East&rft.date=2011&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-8131-3416-1&rft.place=Lexington%2C+KY&rft.pub=University+Press+of+Kentucky&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGaon1995\" class=\"citation book\">Gaon, Solomon (1995). <i>Del fuego : Sephardim and the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Sepher-Hermon Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-87203-143-8\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-87203-143-8\">0-87203-143-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Solomon&rft.aulast=Gaon&rft.btitle=Del+fuego+%3A+Sephardim+and+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1995&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-87203-143-8&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Sepher-Hermon+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGarbe2001\" class=\"citation book\">Garbe, Detlef (2001). \"Social Disinterest, Governmental Disinformation, Renewed Persecution, and Now Manipulation of History?\". In Hans Hesse. <i>Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi-Regime 1933\u20131945<\/i>. Bremen: Edition Temmen. pp. 251\u2013265.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Social+Disinterest%2C+Governmental+Disinformation%2C+Renewed+Persecution%2C+and+Now+Manipulation+of+History%3F&rft.aufirst=Detlef&rft.aulast=Garbe&rft.btitle=Persecution+and+Resistance+of+Jehovah%27s+Witnesses+During+the+Nazi-Regime+1933%E2%80%931945&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=251-265&rft.place=Bremen&rft.pub=Edition+Temmen&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGellately2001\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Gellately\" title=\"Robert Gellately\">Gellately, Robert<\/a> (2001). <i>Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany<\/i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-19-820560-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-19-820560-0\">0-19-820560-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.aulast=Gellately&rft.btitle=Backing+Hitler%3A+Consent+and+Coercion+in+Nazi+Germany&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-19-820560-0&rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGellatelyStoltzfus2001\" class=\"citation book\">Gellately, Robert; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nathan_Stoltzfus\" title=\"Nathan Stoltzfus\">Stoltzfus, Nathan<\/a> (2001). <i>Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany<\/i>. Princeton University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0691086842\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0691086842\">978-0691086842<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Stoltzfus%2C+Nathan&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.aulast=Gellately&rft.btitle=Social+Outsiders+in+Nazi+Germany&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0691086842&rft.pub=Princeton+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGerlach2016\" class=\"citation book\">Gerlach, Christian (2016). <i>The Extermination of the European Jews<\/i>. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-521-70689-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-521-70689-0\">0-521-70689-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Christian&rft.aulast=Gerlach&rft.btitle=The+Extermination+of+the+European+Jews&rft.date=2016&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-521-70689-0&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+United+Kingdom&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGerwarth2012\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Gerwarth\" title=\"Robert Gerwarth\">Gerwarth, Robert<\/a> (2012). <i>Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-300-18772-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-300-18772-4\">978-0-300-18772-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.aulast=Gerwarth&rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Hangman%3A+The+Life+of+Heydrich&rft.date=2012&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-300-18772-4&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGilbert1988\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Gilbert\" title=\"Martin Gilbert\">Gilbert, Martin<\/a> (1988). <i>Atlas of the Holocaust<\/i>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Martin&rft.aulast=Gilbert&rft.btitle=Atlas+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1988&rft.genre=book&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGilbert1993\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1993). <i>The Dent atlas of the Holocaust<\/i>. London: Dent. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-460-86171-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-460-86171-9\">0-460-86171-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Martin&rft.aulast=Gilbert&rft.btitle=The+Dent+atlas+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1993&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-460-86171-9&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Dent&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGilbert2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2001). \"Final Solution\". In Dear, Ian; Foot, Richard D. <i>The Oxford Companion to World War II<\/i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 285\u2013292. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-19-280670-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-19-280670-X\">0-19-280670-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Final+Solution&rft.aufirst=Martin&rft.aulast=Gilbert&rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Companion+to+World+War+II&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-19-280670-X&rft.pages=285-292&rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGilbert1985\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1985). <i>The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War<\/i>. New York: Henry Holt. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8050-0348-7\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8050-0348-7\">0-8050-0348-7<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Martin&rft.aulast=Gilbert&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+A+History+of+the+Jews+of+Europe+During+the+Second+World+War&rft.date=1985&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-8050-0348-7&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Henry+Holt&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGiles1992\" class=\"citation journal\">Giles, Geoffrey J. (1992). \"The Most Unkindest Cut of All: Castration, Homosexuality and Nazi Justice\". <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Journal_of_Contemporary_History\" title=\"Journal of Contemporary History\">Journal of Contemporary History<\/a><\/i>. <b>27<\/b> (1): 41\u201361. <a href=\"\/wiki\/JSTOR\" title=\"JSTOR\">JSTOR<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/260778\">260778<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Digital_object_identifier\" title=\"Digital object identifier\">doi<\/a>:<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/doi.org\/10.1177%2F002200949202700103\">10.1177\/002200949202700103<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Most+Unkindest+Cut+of+All%3A+Castration%2C+Homosexuality+and+Nazi+Justice&rft.aufirst=Geoffrey+J.&rft.aulast=Giles&rft.date=1992&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=1&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Contemporary+History&rft.pages=41-61&rft.volume=27&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F260778&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1177%2F002200949202700103&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGoldensohn2004\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Leon_Goldensohn\" title=\"Leon Goldensohn\">Goldensohn, Leon<\/a> (2004). Gellately, Robert, ed. <i>The Nuremberg Interviews: Conducted by Leon Godensohn<\/i>. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-375-41469-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-375-41469-X\">0-375-41469-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Leon&rft.aulast=Goldensohn&rft.btitle=The+Nuremberg+Interviews%3A+Conducted+by+Leon+Godensohn&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-375-41469-X&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Alfred+A.+Knopf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFGutman1994\" class=\"citation book\">Gutman, Israel (1994). <i>Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising<\/i>. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-395-60199-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-395-60199-1\">0-395-60199-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Israel&rft.aulast=Gutman&rft.btitle=Resistance%3A+The+Warsaw+Ghetto+Uprising&rft.date=1994&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-395-60199-1&rft.place=Boston%2C+MA&rft.pub=Houghton+Mifflin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHancock2004\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ian_Hancock\" title=\"Ian Hancock\">Hancock, Ian<\/a> (2004). \"Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and Overview\". In Dan Stone. <i>The Historiography of the Holocaust<\/i>. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 383\u2013396.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Romanies+and+the+Holocaust%3A+A+Reevaluation+and+Overview&rft.aufirst=Ian&rft.aulast=Hancock&rft.btitle=The+Historiography+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=383-396&rft.place=New+York%2C+NY&rft.pub=Palgrave-Macmillan&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHarran2000\" class=\"citation book\">Harran, Marilyn J. (2000). <i>The Holocaust Chronicle<\/i>. Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-7853-2963-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-7853-2963-3\">0-7853-2963-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Marilyn+J.&rft.aulast=Harran&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Chronicle&rft.date=2000&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-7853-2963-3&rft.place=Lincolnwood%2C+IL&rft.pub=Publications+International&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHedgepethSaidel2010\" class=\"citation book\">Hedgepeth, Sonja M.; Saidel, Rochelle G. (2010). <i>Sexual Violence against Jewish Women During the Holocaust<\/i>. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Saidel%2C+Rochelle+G.&rft.aufirst=Sonja+M.&rft.aulast=Hedgepeth&rft.btitle=Sexual+Violence+against+Jewish+Women+During+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2010&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Lebanon%2C+NH&rft.pub=University+Press+of+New+England&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHilberg2003\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Raul_Hilberg\" title=\"Raul Hilberg\">Hilberg, Raul<\/a> (2003). <i>The Destruction of the European Jews<\/i> (3rd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Raul&rft.aulast=Hilberg&rft.btitle=The+Destruction+of+the+European+Jews&rft.date=2003&rft.edition=3rd&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHilberg1980\" class=\"citation journal\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1980). \"The Ghetto as a Form of Government\". <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Annals_of_the_American_Academy_of_Political_and_Social_Science\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science\">Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science<\/a><\/i>. <b>450<\/b>: 98\u2013112. <a href=\"\/wiki\/JSTOR\" title=\"JSTOR\">JSTOR<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/1042561\">1042561<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Digital_object_identifier\" title=\"Digital object identifier\">doi<\/a>:<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/doi.org\/10.1177%2F000271628045000109\">10.1177\/000271628045000109<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Ghetto+as+a+Form+of+Government&rft.aufirst=Raul&rft.aulast=Hilberg&rft.date=1980&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Annals+of+the+American+Academy+of+Political+and+Social+Science&rft.pages=98-112&rft.volume=450&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F1042561&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1177%2F000271628045000109&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHilberg1995\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1995) [1992]. <i>Perpetrators Victims Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933\u20131945<\/i>. London: Secker & Warburg.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Raul&rft.aulast=Hilberg&rft.btitle=Perpetrators+Victims+Bystanders%3A+The+Jewish+Catastrophe+1933%E2%80%931945&rft.date=1995&rft.genre=book&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Secker+%26+Warburg&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHilberg1996\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1996). <i>The Politics of Memory: The Journey of a Holocaust Historian<\/i>. Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Raul&rft.aulast=Hilberg&rft.btitle=The+Politics+of+Memory%3A+The+Journey+of+a+Holocaust+Historian&rft.date=1996&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Chicago%2C+IL&rft.pub=Ivan+R.+Dee&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHildebrand1984\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Klaus_Hildebrand\" title=\"Klaus Hildebrand\">Hildebrand, Klaus<\/a> (1984). <i>The Third Reich<\/i>. Translated by Falla, P. S. London: George Allen & Unwin. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-04-943033-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-04-943033-5\">0-04-943033-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Klaus&rft.aulast=Hildebrand&rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich&rft.date=1984&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-04-943033-5&rft.place=London&rft.pub=George+Allen+%26+Unwin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHillgruber1989\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Andreas_Hillgruber\" title=\"Andreas Hillgruber\">Hillgruber, Andreas<\/a> (1989). \"War in the East and the Extermination of the Jews\". In Marrus, Michael R. <i>The Nazi Holocaust. Part 3: The \"Final Solution\": The Implementation of Mass Murder<\/i>. <b>1<\/b>. Walter de Gruyter. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-3598215544\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-3598215544\">978-3598215544<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=War+in+the+East+and+the+Extermination+of+the+Jews&rft.aufirst=Andreas&rft.aulast=Hillgruber&rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Holocaust.+Part+3%3A+The+%22Final+Solution%22%3A+The+Implementation+of+Mass+Murder.&rft.date=1989&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=978-3598215544&rft.pub=Walter+de+Gruyter&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFHitchcock2008\" class=\"citation book\">Hitchcock, William I. (2008). <i>The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe<\/i>. New York: Free Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-7432-7381-7\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-7432-7381-7\">978-0-7432-7381-7<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=William+I.&rft.aulast=Hitchcock&rft.btitle=The+Bitter+Road+to+Freedom%3A+A+New+History+of+the+Liberation+of+Europe&rft.date=2008&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-7432-7381-7&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Free+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFJacobs2005\" class=\"citation book\">Jacobs, Neil G. (2005). <i>Yiddish: A Linguistic Introduction<\/i>. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-521-77215-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-521-77215-0\">978-0-521-77215-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Neil+G.&rft.aulast=Jacobs&rft.btitle=Yiddish%3A+A+Linguistic+Introduction&rft.date=2005&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-521-77215-0&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+UK&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFJones2006\" class=\"citation book\">Jones, Adam (2006). <i>Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction<\/i>. London: Routledge. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-415-35384-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-415-35384-X\">0-415-35384-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Adam&rft.aulast=Jones&rft.btitle=Genocide%3A+A+Comprehensive+Introduction&rft.date=2006&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-415-35384-X&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKarny1998\" class=\"citation book\">Karny, Miroslav (1998) [1994]. \"The Vrba and Wetzler Report\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yisrael_Gutman\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Yisrael Gutman\">Gutman, Yisrael<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Berenbaum, Michael<\/a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 553\u2013568. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\">0-253-20884-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Vrba+and+Wetzler+Report&rft.aufirst=Miroslav&rft.aulast=Karny&rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&rft.pages=553-568&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKats1970\" class=\"citation book\">Kats, Alfred (1970). <i>Poland's Ghettos at War<\/i>. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Alfred&rft.aulast=Kats&rft.btitle=Poland%27s+Ghettos+at+War&rft.date=1970&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+York%2C+NY&rft.pub=Twayne+Publishers&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKennedy2007\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/David_M._Kennedy\" title=\"David M. Kennedy\">Kennedy, David M.<\/a>, ed. (2007). <i>The Library of Congress World War II Companion<\/i>. New York: Simon & Schuster. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-7432-5219-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-7432-5219-5\">978-0-7432-5219-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.btitle=The+Library+of+Congress+World+War+II+Companion&rft.date=2007&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-7432-5219-5&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Simon+%26+Schuster&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKeren2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Keren, Nili (2001). \"Children\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Children&rft.aufirst=Nili&rft.aulast=Keren&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKershaw1998\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ian_Kershaw\" title=\"Ian Kershaw\">Kershaw, Ian<\/a> (1998). <i>Hitler 1889\u20131936: Hubris<\/i>. New York: W. W. Norton. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-393-32035-0\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-393-32035-0\">978-0-393-32035-0<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Ian&rft.aulast=Kershaw&rft.btitle=Hitler+1889%E2%80%931936%3A+Hubris&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-393-32035-0&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKershaw2000\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2000). <i>Hitler 1936\u20131945: Nemesis<\/i>. New York: W. W. Norton. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-393-32252-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-393-32252-1\">978-0-393-32252-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Ian&rft.aulast=Kershaw&rft.btitle=Hitler+1936%E2%80%931945%3A+Nemesis&rft.date=2000&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-393-32252-1&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKiernan2009\" class=\"citation book\">Kiernan, Ben (2009). <i>Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-300-14425-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-300-14425-3\">978-0-300-14425-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Ben&rft.aulast=Kiernan&rft.btitle=Blood+and+Soil%3A+A+World+History+of+Genocide+and+Extermination+from+Sparta+to+Darfur&rft.date=2009&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-300-14425-3&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKrakowski1989\" class=\"citation book\">Krakowski, Shmuel (1989). \"The Death Marches in the Period of the Evacuation of the Camps\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Marrus\" title=\"Michael Marrus\">Michael R. Marrus<\/a>. <i>The Nazi Holocaust, Part 9: The End of the Holocaust<\/i>. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 476\u201390.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Death+Marches+in+the+Period+of+the+Evacuation+of+the+Camps&rft.aufirst=Shmuel&rft.aulast=Krakowski&rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Holocaust%2C+Part+9%3A+The+End+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1989&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=476-90&rft.pub=Walter+de+Gruyter&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKrausnick1968\" class=\"citation book\">Krausnick, Helmut (1968). \"The Persecution of the Jews\". In Helmut Krausnick; Hans Buchheim; Martin Broszat; Hans-Adolf Jacobsen. <i>The Anatomy of the SS State<\/i>. New York, NY: Walker and Company. pp. 1\u2013125.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Persecution+of+the+Jews&rft.aufirst=Helmut&rft.aulast=Krausnick&rft.btitle=The+Anatomy+of+the+SS+State&rft.date=1968&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=1-125&rft.place=New+York%2C+NY&rft.pub=Walker+and+Company&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKudryashov2004\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Kudryashov, Sergei (2004). \"Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of the Travniki Guards\". In Erickson, Mark; Erickson, Ljubica. <i>Russia: War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour of John Erickson<\/i>. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 226\u2013239. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-297-84913-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-297-84913-1\">0-297-84913-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Ordinary+Collaborators%3A+The+Case+of+the+Travniki+Guards&rft.aufirst=Sergei&rft.aulast=Kudryashov&rft.btitle=Russia%3A+War%2C+Peace+and+Diplomacy+Essays+in+Honour+of+John+Erickson&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-297-84913-1&rft.pages=226-239&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Weidenfeld+%26+Nicolson&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFKwiet2004\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Kwiet, Konrad (2004). \"Forced Labour of German Jews in Nazi Germany\". In Cesarani, David. <i>Holocaust: Concepts in Historical Studies: Volume II: From the Persecution of the Jews to Mass Murder<\/i>. London: Routledge. pp. 59\u201381. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-415-27511-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-415-27511-3\">0-415-27511-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Forced+Labour+of+German+Jews+in+Nazi+Germany&rft.aufirst=Konrad&rft.aulast=Kwiet&rft.btitle=Holocaust%3A+Concepts+in+Historical+Studies%3A+Volume+II%3A+From+the+Persecution+of+the+Jews+to+Mass+Murder&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-415-27511-3&rft.pages=59-81&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLador-Lederer1980\" class=\"citation journal\">Lador-Lederer, Joseph (1980). \"World War II: Jews as Prisoners of War\". <i>Israel Yearbook on Human Rights<\/i>. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University. <b>10<\/b>: 70\u201389.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=World+War+II%3A+Jews+as+Prisoners+of+War&rft.aufirst=Joseph&rft.aulast=Lador-Lederer&rft.date=1980&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Israel+Yearbook+on+Human+Rights&rft.pages=70-89&rft.volume=10&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLang2003\" class=\"citation book\">Lang, Berel (2003). <i>Act and Idea in the Nazi Genocide<\/i>. Syracuse University Press.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Berel&rft.aulast=Lang&rft.btitle=Act+and+Idea+in+the+Nazi+Genocide&rft.date=2003&rft.genre=book&rft.pub=Syracuse+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLaqueur2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Laqueur, Walter (2001). \"Jewish Brigade\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 351. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Jewish+Brigade&rft.aufirst=Walter&rft.aulast=Laqueur&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=351&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLatawski2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Latawski, Paul (2001). \"Czechoslovakia\". In Dear, Ian; Foot, Richard D. <i>The Oxford Companion to World War II<\/i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 216\u2013217. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-19-280670-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-19-280670-X\">0-19-280670-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Czechoslovakia&rft.aufirst=Paul&rft.aulast=Latawski&rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Companion+to+World+War+II&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-19-280670-X&rft.pages=216-217&rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLichtblau2013\" class=\"citation news\">Lichtblau, Eric (1 March 2013). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.nytimes.com\/2013\/03\/03\/sunday-review\/the-holocaust-just-got-more-shocking.html\">\"The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking\"<\/a>. <i>The New York Times<\/i><span class=\"reference-accessdate\">. Retrieved <span class=\"nowrap\">2 March<\/span> 2013<\/span>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Holocaust+Just+Got+More+Shocking&rft.aufirst=Eric&rft.aulast=Lichtblau&rft.date=2013-03-01&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2013%2F03%2F03%2Fsunday-review%2Fthe-holocaust-just-got-more-shocking.html&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLifton2000\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Jay_Lifton\" title=\"Robert Jay Lifton\">Lifton, Robert J.<\/a> (2000) [1986]. <i>The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide<\/i> (2000 ed.). New York: Basic Books. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-465-04905-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-465-04905-9\">978-0-465-04905-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Robert+J.&rft.aulast=Lifton&rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Doctors%3A+Medical+Killing+and+the+Psychology+of+Genocide&rft.date=2000&rft.edition=2000&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-465-04905-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Basic+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLongerich2010\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Peter_Longerich\" title=\"Peter Longerich\">Longerich, Peter<\/a> (2010). <i>Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews<\/i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-280436-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-280436-5\">978-0-19-280436-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Peter&rft.aulast=Longerich&rft.btitle=Holocaust%3A+The+Nazi+Persecution+and+Murder+of+the+Jews&rft.date=2010&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-19-280436-5&rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLongerich2012\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (2012). <i>Heinrich Himmler<\/i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-959232-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-959232-6\">978-0-19-959232-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Peter&rft.aulast=Longerich&rft.btitle=Heinrich+Himmler&rft.date=2012&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-19-959232-6&rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFLusane2003\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Clarence_Lusane\" title=\"Clarence Lusane\">Lusane, Clarence<\/a> (2003). <i>Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experience of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans and African Americans in the Nazi Era<\/i>. London; New York: Routledge.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Clarence&rft.aulast=Lusane&rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Black+Victims%3A+The+Historical+Experience+of+Afro-Germans%2C+European+Blacks%2C+Africans+and+African+Americans+in+the+Nazi+Era&rft.date=2003&rft.genre=book&rft.place=London%3B+New+York&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMacDonald2007\" class=\"citation book\">MacDonald, David B. (2007). <i>Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation<\/i>. London: Routledge. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-415-43061-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-415-43061-6\">978-0-415-43061-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=David+B.&rft.aulast=MacDonald&rft.btitle=Identity+Politics+in+the+Age+of+Genocide%3A+The+Holocaust+and+Historical+Representation&rft.date=2007&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-415-43061-6&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMaier1988\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Charles_S._Maier\" title=\"Charles S. Maier\">Maier, Charles S.<\/a> (1988). <i>The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity<\/i>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-674-92975-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-674-92975-6\">0-674-92975-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Charles+S.&rft.aulast=Maier&rft.btitle=The+Unmasterable+Past%3A+History%2C+Holocaust%2C+and+German+National+Identity&rft.date=1988&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-674-92975-6&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMarrus1987\" class=\"citation book\">Marrus, Michael R. (1987). <i>The Holocaust in History<\/i>. New York: Meridian. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-452-00953-7\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-452-00953-7\">0-452-00953-7<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Michael+R.&rft.aulast=Marrus&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+in+History&rft.date=1987&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-452-00953-7&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Meridian&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMatth.C3.A4us2004\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Matth\u00e4us, J\u00fcrgen (2004). \"Operation Barbarossa and the Onset of the Holocaust, June\u2013December 1941\". <i>The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 \u2013 March 1942<\/i>. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 244\u2013308. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8032-1327-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8032-1327-1\">0-8032-1327-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Operation+Barbarossa+and+the+Onset+of+the+Holocaust%2C+June%E2%80%93December+1941&rft.aufirst=J%C3%BCrgen&rft.aulast=Matth%C3%A4us&rft.btitle=The+Origins+of+the+Final+Solution%3A+The+Evolution+of+Nazi+Jewish+Policy%2C+September+1939+%E2%80%93+March+1942&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-8032-1327-1&rft.pages=244-308&rft.place=Lincoln%2C+NE&rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMazower2008\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mark_Mazower\" title=\"Mark Mazower\">Mazower, Mark<\/a> (2008). <i>Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe<\/i>. New York: Penguin. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-1-59420-188-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-1-59420-188-2\">978-1-59420-188-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Mark&rft.aulast=Mazower&rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Empire%3A+Nazi+Rule+in+Occupied+Europe&rft.date=2008&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-1-59420-188-2&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Penguin&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMcKale2002\" class=\"citation book\">McKale, Donald M. (2002). <i>Hitler's Shadow War: The Holocaust and World War II<\/i>. New York: Cooper Square Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8154-1211-8\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8154-1211-8\">0-8154-1211-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Donald+M.&rft.aulast=McKale&rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Shadow+War%3A+The+Holocaust+and+World+War+II&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-8154-1211-8&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Cooper+Square+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMichaelDoerr2002\" class=\"citation book\">Michael, Robert; Doerr, Karin (2002). <i>Nazi-Deutsch\/Nazi-German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the Third Reich<\/i>. Greenwood Press.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Doerr%2C+Karin&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.aulast=Michael&rft.btitle=Nazi-Deutsch%2FNazi-German%3A+An+English+Lexicon+of+the+Language+of+the+Third+Reich&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.pub=Greenwood+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMilton2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Milton, Sybil (2001). \"Jehovah's Witnesses\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 346\u2013350. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Jehovah%27s+Witnesses&rft.aufirst=Sybil&rft.aulast=Milton&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=346-350&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMojzes2011\" class=\"citation book\">Mojzes, Paul (2011). <i>Balkan Genocides: Holocaust and Ethnic Cleansing in the 20th Century<\/i>. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-1-4422-0663-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-1-4422-0663-2\">978-1-4422-0663-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Paul&rft.aulast=Mojzes&rft.btitle=Balkan+Genocides%3A+Holocaust+and+Ethnic+Cleansing+in+the+20th+Century&rft.date=2011&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-1-4422-0663-2&rft.place=Lanham%2C+MD&rft.pub=Rowman+%26+Littlefield&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFMontague2012\" class=\"citation book\">Montague, Patrick (2012). <i>Chelmno and the Holocaust: A History of Hitler's First Death Camp<\/i>. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-8078-3527-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-8078-3527-2\">978-0-8078-3527-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Patrick&rft.aulast=Montague&rft.btitle=Chelmno+and+the+Holocaust%3A+A+History+of+Hitler%27s+First+Death+Camp&rft.date=2012&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-8078-3527-2&rft.place=Chapel+Hill%2C+NC&rft.pub=University+of+North+Carolina+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFM.C3.BCllerUebersch.C3.A4r2002\" class=\"citation book\">M\u00fcller, Rolf-Dieter; Uebersch\u00e4r, Gerd R. (2002). <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hitler%27s_War_in_the_East_1941%E2%88%921945:_A_Critical_Assessment\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Hitler's War in the East 1941\u22121945: A Critical Assessment\">Hitler's War in the East 1941\u22121945: A Critical Assessment<\/a><\/i>. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Uebersch%C3%A4r%2C+Gerd+R.&rft.aufirst=Rolf-Dieter&rft.aulast=M%C3%BCller&rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+War+in+the+East+1941%E2%88%921945%3A+A+Critical+Assessment&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+York+%26+Oxford&rft.pub=Berghahn+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFNaimark2001\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Norman_Naimark\" title=\"Norman Naimark\">Naimark, Norman M.<\/a> (2001). <i>Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe<\/i>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-674-00313-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-674-00313-6\">0-674-00313-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Norman+M.&rft.aulast=Naimark&rft.btitle=Fires+of+Hatred%3A+Ethnic+Cleansing+in+Twentieth-Century+Europe&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-674-00313-6&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000\" class=\"citation book\">Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). <i>The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Columbia University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-231-11200-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-231-11200-9\">0-231-11200-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Nicosia%2C+Francis+R.&rft.aufirst=Donald+L.&rft.aulast=Niewyk&rft.btitle=The+Columbia+Guide+to+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2000&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-231-11200-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Columbia+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFNoakesPridham1983\" class=\"citation book\">Noakes, Jeremy; Pridham, Geoffrey (1983). <i>Nazism: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, 1919\u20131945<\/i>. Schocken Books.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=Pridham%2C+Geoffrey&rft.aufirst=Jeremy&rft.aulast=Noakes&rft.btitle=Nazism%3A+A+History+in+Documents+and+Eyewitness+Accounts%2C+1919%E2%80%931945&rft.date=1983&rft.genre=book&rft.pub=Schocken+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPaldiel1993\" class=\"citation book\">Paldiel, Mordecai (1993). <i>The Path of the Righteous: Gentile Rescuers of Jews<\/i>. Hoboken, NJ: KTAV Publishing House. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-88125-376-6\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-88125-376-6\">0-88125-376-6<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Mordecai&rft.aulast=Paldiel&rft.btitle=The+Path+of+the+Righteous%3A+Gentile+Rescuers+of+Jews&rft.date=1993&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-88125-376-6&rft.place=Hoboken%2C+NJ&rft.pub=KTAV+Publishing+House&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPetrie2000\" class=\"citation journal\">Petrie, Jon (2000). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.berkeleyinternet.com\/holocaust\">\"The Secular Word 'Holocaust': Scholarly Myths, History, and Twentieth Century Meanings\"<\/a>. <i>Journal of Genocide Research<\/i>. <b>2<\/b> (1): 31\u201363. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Digital_object_identifier\" title=\"Digital object identifier\">doi<\/a>:<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/doi.org\/10.1080%2F146235200112409\">10.1080\/146235200112409<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Secular+Word+%27Holocaust%27%3A+Scholarly+Myths%2C+History%2C+and+Twentieth+Century+Meanings&rft.aufirst=Jon&rft.aulast=Petrie&rft.date=2000&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=1&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Genocide+Research&rft.pages=31-63&rft.volume=2&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.berkeleyinternet.com%2Fholocaust&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F146235200112409&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPeukert1987\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Detlev_Peukert\" title=\"Detlev Peukert\">Peukert, Detlev<\/a> (1987) [1982]. <i>Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition and Racism In Everyday Life<\/i>. Translated by Deveson, Richard. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-04480-1\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-04480-1\">0-300-04480-1<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Detlev&rft.aulast=Peukert&rft.btitle=Inside+Nazi+Germany%3A+Conformity%2C+Opposition+and+Racism+In+Everyday+Life&rft.date=1987&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-300-04480-1&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPeukert1994\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1994). \"The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' from the Spirit of Science\". In Crew, David F. <i>Nazism and German Society, 1933\u20131945<\/i>. London: Routledge. pp. 274\u2013299. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-415-08240-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-415-08240-4\">0-415-08240-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Genesis+of+the+%27Final+Solution%27+from+the+Spirit+of+Science&rft.aufirst=Detlev&rft.aulast=Peukert&rft.btitle=Nazism+and+German+Society%2C+1933%E2%80%931945&rft.date=1994&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-415-08240-4&rft.pages=274-299&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPinkus1990\" class=\"citation book\">Pinkus, Benjamin (1990). <i>The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority<\/i>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Benjamin&rft.aulast=Pinkus&rft.btitle=The+Jews+of+the+Soviet+Union%3A+The+History+of+a+National+Minority&rft.date=1990&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Cambridge&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPiotrowski1998\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tadeusz_Piotrowski_(sociologist)\" title=\"Tadeusz Piotrowski (sociologist)\">Piotrowski, Tadeusz<\/a> (1998). <i>Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration With Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918\u20131947<\/i>. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Tadeusz&rft.aulast=Piotrowski&rft.btitle=Poland%27s+Holocaust%3A+Ethnic+Strife%2C+Collaboration+With+Occupying+Forces+and+Genocide+in+the+Second+Republic%2C+1918%E2%80%931947&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Jefferson%2C+NC&rft.pub=McFarland+%26+Company&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPiper1998b\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franciszek_Piper\" title=\"Franciszek Piper\">Piper, Franciszek<\/a> (1998b) [1994]. \"Gas chambers and Crematoria\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yisrael_Gutman\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Yisrael Gutman\">Gutman, Yisrael<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Berenbaum, Michael<\/a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 157\u2013182. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\">0-253-20884-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Gas+chambers+and+Crematoria&rft.aufirst=Franciszek&rft.aulast=Piper&rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&rft.pages=157-182&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPiper1998a\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014 (1998a) [1994]. \"The Number of Victims\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Yisrael_Gutman\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Yisrael Gutman\">Gutman, Yisrael<\/a>; <a href=\"\/wiki\/Michael_Berenbaum\" title=\"Michael Berenbaum\">Berenbaum, Michael<\/a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 61\u201380. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-253-20884-X\">0-253-20884-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Number+of+Victims&rft.aufirst=Franciszek&rft.aulast=Piper&rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&rft.date=1998&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&rft.pages=61-80&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPolonsky2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Polonsky, Antony (2001). \"Polish Jewry\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 486\u2013493. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Polish+Jewry&rft.aufirst=Antony&rft.aulast=Polonsky&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=486-493&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPoprzeczny2004\" class=\"citation book\">Poprzeczny, Joseph (2004). <i>Odilo Globocnik: Hitler's Man in the East<\/i>. Jefferson, NC: <a href=\"\/wiki\/McFarland_%26_Company\" title=\"McFarland & Company\">McFarland & Company<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Joseph&rft.aulast=Poprzeczny&rft.btitle=Odilo+Globocnik%3A+Hitler%27s+Man+in+the+East&rft.date=2004&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Jefferson%2C+NC&rft.pub=McFarland+%26+Company&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFPorat2002\" class=\"citation book\">Porat, Dina (2002). \"The Holocaust in Lithuania: Some Unique Aspects\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/David_Cesarani\" title=\"David Cesarani\">David Cesarani<\/a>. <i>The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation<\/i>. London: Routledge. pp. 159\u2013174.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=The+Holocaust+in+Lithuania%3A+Some+Unique+Aspects&rft.aufirst=Dina&rft.aulast=Porat&rft.btitle=The+Final+Solution%3A+Origins+and+Implementation&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.pages=159-174&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFProctor1988\" class=\"citation book\">Proctor, Robert (1988). <i>Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis<\/i>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-674-74578-7\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-674-74578-7\">0-674-74578-7<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.aulast=Proctor&rft.btitle=Racial+Hygiene%3A+Medicine+Under+the+Nazis&rft.date=1988&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-674-74578-7&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFRees2005\" class=\"citation book\">Rees, Laurence (2005). <i>Auschwitz: A New History<\/i>. New York: Public Affairs. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/1-58648-303-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/1-58648-303-X\">1-58648-303-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Laurence&rft.aulast=Rees&rft.btitle=Auschwitz%3A+A+New+History&rft.date=2005&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=1-58648-303-X&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Public+Affairs&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFRhodes2002\" class=\"citation book\">Rhodes, Richard (2002). <i>Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0375409004\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0375409004\">978-0375409004<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Richard&rft.aulast=Rhodes&rft.btitle=Masters+of+Death%3A+The+SS-Einsatzgruppen+and+the+Invention+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0375409004&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Alfred+A.+Knopf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFRozett1990\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Rozett, Robert (1990). \"Railways, German\". In <a href=\"\/wiki\/Israel_Gutman\" title=\"Israel Gutman\">Gutman, Israel<\/a>. <i>Encyclopedia of the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Macmillan Library Reference. pp. 1221\u20131223. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-02-896090-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-02-896090-4\">0-02-896090-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Railways%2C+German&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.aulast=Rozett&rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1990&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-02-896090-4&rft.pages=1221-1223&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Macmillan+Library+Reference&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFSamuels2009\" class=\"citation book\">Samuels, Simon (2009). \"Applying the Lessons of the Holocaust\". In Alan S. Rosenbaum. <i>Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide<\/i>. Boulder, CO Philadelphia, PA: Westview Press Perseus Books Group distributor. pp. 259\u2013270. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-8133-4406-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-8133-4406-5\">978-0-8133-4406-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Applying+the+Lessons+of+the+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Simon&rft.aulast=Samuels&rft.btitle=Is+the+Holocaust+Unique%3F+Perspectives+on+Comparative+Genocide&rft.date=2009&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=978-0-8133-4406-5&rft.pages=259-270&rft.place=Boulder%2C+CO+Philadelphia%2C+PA&rft.pub=Westview+Press+Perseus+Books+Group+distributor&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFSnyder1976\" class=\"citation book\">Snyder, Louis (1976). <i>Encyclopedia of the Third Reich<\/i>. New York: McGraw Hill. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-07-059525-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-07-059525-9\">0-07-059525-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Louis&rft.aulast=Snyder&rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Third+Reich&rft.date=1976&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-07-059525-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=McGraw+Hill&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFSnyder2010\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timothy_D._Snyder\" title=\"Timothy D. Snyder\">Snyder, Timothy<\/a> (2010). <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bloodlands:_Europe_Between_Hitler_and_Stalin\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin\">Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin<\/a><\/i>. New York: Basic Books. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-465-00239-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-465-00239-9\">978-0-465-00239-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Timothy&rft.aulast=Snyder&rft.btitle=Bloodlands%3A+Europe+Between+Hitler+and+Stalin&rft.date=2010&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-465-00239-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Basic+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFStone2011\" class=\"citation book\">Stone, Dan (2011). <i>Histories of the Holocaust<\/i>. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-956679-2\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-956679-2\">978-0-19-956679-2<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Dan&rft.aulast=Stone&rft.btitle=Histories+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=2011&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-19-956679-2&rft.place=Oxford+New+York&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFStrous2007\" class=\"citation journal\">Strous, Rael D. (2007). <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.annals-general-psychiatry.com\/content\/6\/1\/8\">\"Psychiatry during the Nazi Era: Ethical Lessons for the Modern Professional\"<\/a>. <i>Annals of General Psychiatry<\/i>. <b>6<\/b> (8): 8. <a href=\"\/wiki\/PubMed_Central\" title=\"PubMed Central\">PMC<\/a> <span class=\"plainlinks\"><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pmc\/articles\/PMC1828151\">1828151<\/a>\u202f<img alt=\"Freely accessible\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/65\/Lock-green.svg\/9px-Lock-green.svg.png\" title=\"Freely accessible\" width=\"9\" height=\"14\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/65\/Lock-green.svg\/14px-Lock-green.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/6\/65\/Lock-green.svg\/18px-Lock-green.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"512\" data-file-height=\"813\" \/><\/span>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/PubMed_Identifier\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"PubMed Identifier\">PMID<\/a> <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/17326822\">17326822<\/a>. <a href=\"\/wiki\/Digital_object_identifier\" title=\"Digital object identifier\">doi<\/a>:<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/doi.org\/10.1186%2F1744-859X-6-8\">10.1186\/1744-859X-6-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Psychiatry+during+the+Nazi+Era%3A+Ethical+Lessons+for+the+Modern+Professional&rft.aufirst=Rael+D.&rft.aulast=Strous&rft.date=2007&rft.genre=article&rft.issue=8&rft.jtitle=Annals+of+General+Psychiatry&rft.pages=8&rft.volume=6&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC1828151&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.annals-general-psychiatry.com%2Fcontent%2F6%2F1%2F8&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1186%2F1744-859X-6-8&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F17326822&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFTec2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Tec, Nechama (2001). \"Resistance in Eastern Europe\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 543\u2013550. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Resistance+in+Eastern+Europe&rft.aufirst=Nechama&rft.aulast=Tec&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=543-550&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFTomasevich2001\" class=\"citation book\">Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). <i>War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941\u20131945: Occupation and Collaboration<\/i>. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8047-3615-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8047-3615-4\">0-8047-3615-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Jozo&rft.aulast=Tomasevich&rft.btitle=War+and+Revolution+in+Yugoslavia%2C+1941%E2%80%931945%3A+Occupation+and+Collaboration&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-8047-3615-4&rft.place=Stanford%2C+CA&rft.pub=Stanford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFTooze2006\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adam_Tooze\" title=\"Adam Tooze\">Tooze, Adam<\/a> (2006). <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Wages_of_Destruction\" title=\"The Wages of Destruction\">The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy<\/a><\/i>. New York: Viking. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-670-03826-8\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-670-03826-8\">978-0-670-03826-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Adam&rft.aulast=Tooze&rft.btitle=The+Wages+of+Destruction%3A+The+Making+and+Breaking+of+the+Nazi+Economy&rft.date=2006&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-670-03826-8&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Viking&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFTrunk1996\" class=\"citation book\">Trunk, Isaiah (1996) [1972]. <i>Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation<\/i>. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-8032-9428-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-8032-9428-X\">0-8032-9428-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Isaiah&rft.aulast=Trunk&rft.btitle=Judenrat%3A+The+Jewish+Councils+in+Eastern+Europe+under+Nazi+Occupation&rft.date=1996&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-8032-9428-X&rft.place=Lincoln%2C+NE&rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum1996\" class=\"citation book\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (1996). <i>Historical Atlas of the Holocaust<\/i>. New York: Macmillan. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-02-897451-4\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-02-897451-4\">0-02-897451-4<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.au=United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&rft.btitle=Historical+Atlas+of+the+Holocaust&rft.date=1996&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-02-897451-4&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Macmillan&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFWachsmann2015\" class=\"citation book\">Wachsmann, Nikolaus (2015). <i>Kl: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps<\/i>. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-374-11825-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-374-11825-9\">978-0-374-11825-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Nikolaus&rft.aulast=Wachsmann&rft.btitle=Kl%3A+A+History+of+the+Nazi+Concentration+Camps&rft.date=2015&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-374-11825-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Farrar%2C+Straus+and+Giroux&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFWachsmannCaplan2010\" class=\"citation book\">\u2014\u2014\u2014; Caplan, Jane, eds. (2010). <i>Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories<\/i>. New York: Routledge.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.btitle=Concentration+Camps+in+Nazi+Germany%3A+The+New+Histories&rft.date=2010&rft.genre=book&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Routledge&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFWeinberg2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Weinberg, David (2001). \"France\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 213\u2013222. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=France&rft.aufirst=David&rft.aulast=Weinberg&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=213-222&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFYahil1990\" class=\"citation book\">Yahil, Leni (1990). <i>The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932\u20131945<\/i>. New York: Oxford University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-504523-9\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-19-504523-9\">978-0-19-504523-9<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Leni&rft.aulast=Yahil&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+The+Fate+of+European+Jewry%2C+1932%E2%80%931945&rft.date=1990&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-19-504523-9&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFZuccotti1993\" class=\"citation book\">Zuccotti, Susan (1993). <i>The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews<\/i>. New York: Basic Books. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-465-03034-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-465-03034-3\">0-465-03034-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Susan&rft.aulast=Zuccotti&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%2C+the+French%2C+and+the+Jews&rft.date=1993&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-465-03034-3&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Basic+Books&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<dd><cite id=\"CITEREFZweig2001\" class=\"citation encyclopaedia\">Zweig, Ronald (2001). \"Reparations, German\". In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia<\/i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 530\u2013532. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-300-08432-3\">0-300-08432-3<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.atitle=Reparations%2C+German&rft.aufirst=Ronald&rft.aulast=Zweig&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&rft.date=2001&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&rft.pages=530-532&rft.place=New+Haven&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Further_reading\">Further reading<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"note\" class=\"hatnote navigation-not-searchable\">Main article: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Bibliography_of_The_Holocaust\" title=\"Bibliography of The Holocaust\">Bibliography of The Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<div class=\"refbegin refbegin-hanging-indents columns references-column-width\" style=\"-moz-column-width: 35em; -webkit-column-width: 35em; column-width: 35em;\">\n<ul>\n<li><cite class=\"citation book\">Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_Industry\" title=\"The Holocaust Industry\">The Holocaust Industry<\/a>: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering<\/i> (2nd ed.). London: Verso. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/1-85984-488-X\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/1-85984-488-X\">1-85984-488-X<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Norman+G.&rft.aulast=Finkelstein&rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Industry%3A+Reflections+on+the+Exploitation+of+Jewish+Suffering&rft.date=2003&rft.edition=2nd&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=1-85984-488-X&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Verso&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li><cite class=\"citation book\">Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah (1996). <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hitler%27s_Willing_Executioners\" title=\"Hitler's Willing Executioners\">Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and The Holocaust<\/a><\/i>. New York: Alfred A Knopf. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/0-679-44695-8\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/0-679-44695-8\">0-679-44695-8<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Daniel+Jonah&rft.aulast=Goldhagen&rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Willing+Executioners%3A+Ordinary+Germans+and+The+Holocaust&rft.date=1996&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=0-679-44695-8&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Alfred+A+Knopf&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li><cite class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ian_Kershaw\" title=\"Ian Kershaw\">Kershaw, Ian<\/a> (2008). <i>Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution<\/i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Standard_Book_Number\" title=\"International Standard Book Number\">ISBN<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Special:BookSources\/978-0-300-15127-5\" title=\"Special:BookSources\/978-0-300-15127-5\">978-0-300-15127-5<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Ian&rft.aulast=Kershaw&rft.btitle=Hitler%2C+the+Germans%2C+and+the+Final+Solution&rft.date=2008&rft.genre=book&rft.isbn=978-0-300-15127-5&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li><cite class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Peter_Longerich\" title=\"Peter Longerich\">Longerich, Peter<\/a> (2003) [2001]. <i>The Unwritten Order: Hitler's Role in the Final Solution<\/i>. Stroud, UK: Tempus.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Peter&rft.aulast=Longerich&rft.btitle=The+Unwritten+Order%3A+Hitler%27s+Role+in+the+Final+Solution&rft.date=2003&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Stroud%2C+UK&rft.pub=Tempus&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<li><cite id=\"CITEREFvan_Pelt2002\" class=\"citation book\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Jan_van_Pelt\" title=\"Robert Jan van Pelt\">van Pelt, Robert Jan<\/a> (2002). <i>The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial<\/i>. Bloomington, IN: <a href=\"\/wiki\/Indiana_University_Press\" title=\"Indiana University Press\">Indiana University Press<\/a>.<\/cite><span title=\"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust&rft.aufirst=Robert+Jan&rft.aulast=van+Pelt&rft.btitle=The+Case+for+Auschwitz%3A+Evidence+from+the+Irving+Trial&rft.date=2002&rft.genre=book&rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook\" class=\"Z3988\"><span style=\"display:none;\"> <\/span><\/span><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"External_links\">External links<\/span><\/h2>\n<div role=\"navigation\" aria-labelledby=\"sister-projects\" class=\"metadata plainlinks plainlist mbox-small\" style=\"border:1px solid #aaa; padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;\">\n<div style=\"padding-bottom: 0.75em; text-align: center;\">Find more about<b style=\"display:block;\">The Holocaust<\/b>at Wikipedia's <a href=\"\/wiki\/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects\" title=\"Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects\"><span id=\"sister-projects\">sister projects<\/span><\/a><\/div>\n<ul style=\"border-top:1px solid #aaa; padding-top: 0.75em;\">\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/0\/06\/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg\/27px-Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg.png\" width=\"27\" height=\"27\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/0\/06\/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg\/41px-Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/0\/06\/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg\/54px-Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"391\" data-file-height=\"391\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wiktionary.org\/wiki\/Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"wikt:Holocaust\">Definitions<\/a> from Wiktionary<\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/4a\/Commons-logo.svg\/20px-Commons-logo.svg.png\" width=\"20\" height=\"27\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/4a\/Commons-logo.svg\/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/4a\/Commons-logo.svg\/40px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"1024\" data-file-height=\"1376\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/commons.wikimedia.org\/wiki\/Category:The_Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"c:Category:The Holocaust\">Media<\/a> from Commons<\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/2\/24\/Wikinews-logo.svg\/27px-Wikinews-logo.svg.png\" width=\"27\" height=\"15\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/2\/24\/Wikinews-logo.svg\/41px-Wikinews-logo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/2\/24\/Wikinews-logo.svg\/54px-Wikinews-logo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"759\" data-file-height=\"415\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikinews.org\/wiki\/Special:Search\/The_Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"n:Special:Search\/The Holocaust\">News<\/a> from Wikinews<\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fa\/Wikiquote-logo.svg\/23px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png\" width=\"23\" height=\"27\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fa\/Wikiquote-logo.svg\/35px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fa\/Wikiquote-logo.svg\/46px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"300\" data-file-height=\"355\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikiquote.org\/wiki\/The_Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"q:The Holocaust\">Quotations<\/a> from Wikiquote<\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/4c\/Wikisource-logo.svg\/26px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png\" width=\"26\" height=\"27\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/4c\/Wikisource-logo.svg\/39px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/4\/4c\/Wikisource-logo.svg\/51px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"410\" data-file-height=\"430\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikisource.org\/wiki\/Special:Search\/The_Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"s:Special:Search\/The Holocaust\">Texts<\/a> from Wikisource<\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fa\/Wikibooks-logo.svg\/27px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png\" width=\"27\" height=\"27\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fa\/Wikibooks-logo.svg\/41px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/f\/fa\/Wikibooks-logo.svg\/54px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"300\" data-file-height=\"300\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikibooks.org\/wiki\/Special:Search\/The_Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"b:Special:Search\/The Holocaust\">Textbooks<\/a> from Wikibooks<\/span><\/li>\n<li style=\"min-height: 31px;\"><span style=\"display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;\"><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/1b\/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg\/27px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png\" width=\"27\" height=\"24\" style=\"vertical-align: middle\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/1b\/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg\/41px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/1\/1b\/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg\/54px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"1000\" data-file-height=\"900\" \/><\/span><span style=\"display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikiversity.org\/wiki\/Special:Search\/The_Holocaust\" class=\"extiw\" title=\"v:Special:Search\/The Holocaust\">Learning resources<\/a> from Wikiversity<\/span><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<ul>\n<li>Library resources <a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/ftl\/cgi-bin\/ftl?at=wp&au=The+Holocaust\">in your library<\/a> and <a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/tools.wmflabs.org\/ftl\/cgi-bin\/ftl?at=wp&au=The+Holocaust&library=0CHOOSE0\">in other libraries<\/a> by The Holocaust<\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.science.co.il\/jewish\/Holocaust-museums.php\">Global Directory of Holocaust Museums<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.h-net.org\/~holoweb\/\">H-Holocaust<\/a>, H-Net discussion list for librarians, scholars and advanced students<\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/eisenhower.archives.gov\/research\/online_documents\/holocaust.html\">Online documents available from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/eisenhower.archives.gov\/research\/subject_guides\/pdf\/Holocaust.pdf\">Guide to materials available at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.wienerlibrary.co.uk\/\">The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide<\/a>\u2014The World's Oldest Holocaust Memorial Institution<\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/educators\/teaching-about-the-holocaust\/common-questions\">Common Questions about the Holocaust<\/a> by the <a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum\" title=\"United States Holocaust Memorial Museum\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.holocaustresearchproject.org\/holoprelude\/Wannsee\/wanseeminutes.html\">The Minutes from the Wannsee Conference in English<\/a><\/li>\n<li>Stills from Soviet documentary \"The Atrocities committed by German Fascists in the USSR\" (<a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=-w5GLwBwN-0&index=94&list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9\">(1)<\/a>; <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=n_4WoQfz-N0&index=95&list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9\">(2)<\/a>; <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=knCKIny5NPU&index=96&list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9\">(3)<\/a>)<\/li>\n<li>Slide show <a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=WmHR4P5FeuA&index=97&list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9\">\"Nazi Crimes in the USSR (Graphic images!)\"<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=QtRDt6uAB0U\">Nazi Concentration and Prison Camps (1945) Nuremberg Trials Documentary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"https:\/\/www.ushmm.org\/confront-antisemitism\/holocaust-denial-and-distortion\">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.thebreman.org\/Exhibitions\/Now-on-View\/Absence-of-Humanity-The-Holocaust-Years-1933-1945\">Absence of Humanity Exhibit \u2013 The Breman Museum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a rel=\"nofollow\" class=\"external text\" href=\"http:\/\/www.chroniclesofterror.pl\/dlibra\/results?action=AdvancedSearchAction&type=-3&search_attid1=65&search_value1=The+Jews\">Collection of testimonies concerning genocide of Jews in occupied Poland in 'Chronicles of Terror' database<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"The_Holocaust\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:The_Holocaust\" title=\"Template:The Holocaust\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:The_Holocaust\" title=\"Template talk:The Holocaust\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:The_Holocaust&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"The_Holocaust\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">By territory<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Albania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Albania\">Albania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belgium\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belgium\">Belgium<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_occupation_of_the_Channel_Islands#Repressions\" title=\"German occupation of the Channel Islands\">Channel Islands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia\" title=\"The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia\">Croatia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">Estonia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_France\" title=\"The Holocaust in France\">France<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Norway\" title=\"The Holocaust in Norway\">Norway<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">Latvia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Jews_of_Libya_during_the_Holocaust\" title=\"The Jews of Libya during the Holocaust\">Libya<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Luxembourg\" title=\"The Holocaust in Luxembourg\">Luxembourg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Serbia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Serbia\">Serbia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;\">Lists and<br \/>\ntimelines<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_victims_of_Nazism\" title=\"List of victims of Nazism\">Victims of Nazism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_survivors\" title=\"List of Holocaust survivors\">Holocaust survivors<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_survivors_of_Sobib%C3%B3r\" title=\"List of survivors of Sobib\u00f3r\">Survivors of Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_victims_and_survivors_of_Auschwitz\" title=\"List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz\">Victims and survivors of Auschwitz<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bibliography_of_The_Holocaust\" title=\"Bibliography of The Holocaust\">Books and other resources<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_films\" title=\"List of Holocaust films\">Films about the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"List of Nazi concentration camps\">Nazi concentration camps<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_ideologues\" title=\"List of Nazi ideologues\">Nazi ideologues<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Individuals_and_groups_assisting_Jews_during_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust\">Rescuers of Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_villages_and_towns_depopulated_of_Jews_during_the_Holocaust\" title=\"List of villages and towns depopulated of Jews during the Holocaust\">Shtetls depopulated of Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_deportations_of_French_Jews_to_death_camps\" title=\"Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps\">Timeline of deportations of French Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Timeline of the Holocaust\">Timeline of the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_the_Holocaust_in_Norway\" title=\"Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway\">Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Timeline of Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka timeline<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\";\">\n<div id=\"Camps\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"List of Nazi concentration camps\">Camps<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"Nazi concentration camps\">Concentration<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Bergen-Belsen concentration camp\">Bergen-Belsen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bogdanovka\" title=\"Bogdanovka\">Bogdanovka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Buchenwald_concentration_camp\" title=\"Buchenwald concentration camp\">Buchenwald<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dachau_concentration_camp\" title=\"Dachau concentration camp\">Dachau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Danica_concentration_camp\" title=\"Danica concentration camp\">Danica<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mittelbau-Dora\" title=\"Mittelbau-Dora\">Dora<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C4%90akovo_concentration_camp\" title=\"\u0110akovo concentration camp\">\u0110akovo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Esterwegen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Esterwegen concentration camp\">Esterwegen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Flossenb%C3%BCrg_concentration_camp\" title=\"Flossenb\u00fcrg concentration camp\">Flossenb\u00fcrg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gonars_concentration_camp\" title=\"Gonars concentration camp\">Gonars<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gospi%C4%87_concentration_camp\" title=\"Gospi\u0107 concentration camp\">Gospi\u0107<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gross-Rosen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Gross-Rosen concentration camp\">Gross-Rosen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Herzogenbusch_concentration_camp\" title=\"Herzogenbusch concentration camp\">Herzogenbusch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jadovno_concentration_camp\" title=\"Jadovno concentration camp\">Jadovno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Janowska_concentration_camp\" title=\"Janowska concentration camp\">Janowska<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaiserwald_concentration_camp\" title=\"Kaiserwald concentration camp\">Kaiserwald<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Krak%C3%B3w-P%C5%82asz%C3%B3w_concentration_camp\" title=\"Krak\u00f3w-P\u0142asz\u00f3w concentration camp\">Krak\u00f3w-P\u0142asz\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kru%C5%A1%C4%8Dica_concentration_camp\" title=\"Kru\u0161\u010dica concentration camp\">Kru\u0161\u010dica<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lobor_concentration_camp\" title=\"Lobor concentration camp\">Lobor<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mauthausen-Gusen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp\">Mauthausen-Gusen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Neuengamme_concentration_camp\" title=\"Neuengamme concentration camp\">Neuengamme<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rab_concentration_camp\" title=\"Rab concentration camp\">Rab<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp\" title=\"Ravensbr\u00fcck concentration camp\">Ravensbr\u00fcck<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Sachsenhausen concentration camp\">Sachsenhausen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Salaspils_concentration_camp\" title=\"Salaspils concentration camp\">Salaspils<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sisak_children%27s_concentration_camp\" title=\"Sisak children's concentration camp\">Sisak children's camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stutthof_concentration_camp\" title=\"Stutthof concentration camp\">Stutthof<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tenja_concentration_camp\" title=\"Tenja concentration camp\">Tenja<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp\" title=\"Theresienstadt concentration camp\">Theresienstadt<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Uckermark_concentration_camp\" title=\"Uckermark concentration camp\">Uckermark<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_concentration_camp\" title=\"Warsaw concentration camp\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz-Birkenau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jasenovac_concentration_camp\" title=\"Jasenovac concentration camp\">Jasenovac<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp\" title=\"Maly Trostenets extermination camp\">Maly Trostenets<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sajmi%C5%A1te_concentration_camp\" title=\"Sajmi\u0161te concentration camp\">Sajmi\u0161te<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Slana_concentration_camp\" title=\"Slana concentration camp\">Slana<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Transit<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><b><span class=\"smallcaps\" style=\"font-variant:small-caps;\">be<\/span><\/b><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fort_Breendonk\" title=\"Fort Breendonk\">Breendonk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mechelen_transit_camp\" title=\"Mechelen transit camp\">Mechelen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><b><a href=\"\/wiki\/Concentration_camps_in_France\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Concentration camps in France\"><span class=\"smallcaps\" style=\"font-variant:small-caps;\">fr<\/span><\/a><\/b><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gurs_internment_camp\" title=\"Gurs internment camp\">Gurs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drancy_internment_camp\" title=\"Drancy internment camp\">Drancy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><b><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Italian_concentration_camps#World_War_II\" title=\"List of Italian concentration camps\"><span class=\"smallcaps\" style=\"font-variant:small-caps;\">it<\/span><\/a><\/b><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bolzano_Transit_Camp\" title=\"Bolzano Transit Camp\">Bolzano<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Risiera_di_San_Sabba\" title=\"Risiera di San Sabba\">Risiera di San Sabba<\/a><\/li>\n<li><b><span class=\"smallcaps\" style=\"font-variant:small-caps;\">nl<\/span><\/b><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Amersfoort_concentration_camp\" title=\"Amersfoort concentration camp\">Amersfoort<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Westerbork_transit_camp\" title=\"Westerbork transit camp\">Westerbork<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Methods<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_van\" title=\"Gas van\">Gas van<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_chamber\" title=\"Gas chamber\">Gas chamber<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_through_labour\" title=\"Extermination through labour\">Extermination through labour<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Human medical experimentation<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Nazi units<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/SS-Totenkopfverb%C3%A4nde\" title=\"SS-Totenkopfverb\u00e4nde\">SS-<i>Totenkopfverb\u00e4nde<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Concentration_Camps_Inspectorate\" title=\"Concentration Camps Inspectorate\">Concentration Camps Inspectorate<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Politische_Abteilung\" title=\"Politische Abteilung\">Politische Abteilung<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sanit%C3%A4tswesen\" title=\"Sanit\u00e4tswesen\">Sanit\u00e4tswesen<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\";\">\n<div id=\"Victims\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">Victims<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_during_World_War_II\" title=\"History of the Jews during World War II\">Jews<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Roundup_(history)\" title=\"Roundup (history)\">Roundups<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><b><span class=\"smallcaps\" style=\"font-variant:small-caps;\">fr<\/span><\/b><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Izieu\" title=\"Izieu\">Izieu<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Round_up_of_Marseille\" title=\"Round up of Marseille\">Marseille<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vel%27_d%27Hiv_Roundup\" title=\"Vel' d'Hiv Roundup\">Vel' d'Hiv<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom#During_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Pogrom\">Pogroms<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kristallnacht\" title=\"Kristallnacht\">Kristallnacht<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Legionnaires%27_rebellion_and_Bucharest_pogrom\" title=\"Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom\">Bucharest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dorohoi_pogrom\" title=\"Dorohoi pogrom\">Dorohoi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ia%C8%99i_pogrom\" title=\"Ia\u0219i pogrom\">Ia\u015fi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jedwabne_pogrom\" title=\"Jedwabne pogrom\">Jedwabne<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaunas_pogrom\" title=\"Kaunas pogrom\">Kaunas<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1941_Odessa_massacre\" title=\"1941 Odessa massacre\">Odessa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tykocin_pogrom\" title=\"Tykocin pogrom\">Tykocin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/W%C4%85sosz_pogrom\" title=\"W\u0105sosz pogrom\">W\u0105sosz<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe\">Ghettos<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background:#eef;font-weight:normal;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland\" title=\"Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Krak\u00f3w Ghetto\">Krak\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0141\u00f3d\u017a Ghetto\">\u0141\u00f3d\u017a<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lublin_Ghetto\" title=\"Lublin Ghetto\">Lublin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Lw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Lw\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background:#eef;font-weight:normal;\">Elsewhere<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Budapest_Ghetto\" title=\"Budapest Ghetto\">Budapest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kovno_Ghetto\" title=\"Kovno Ghetto\">Kovno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Minsk_Ghetto\" title=\"Minsk Ghetto\">Minsk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Riga_Ghetto\" title=\"Riga Ghetto\">Riga<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vilna_Ghetto\" title=\"Vilna Ghetto\">Vilna<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\">\"<a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a>\"<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wannsee_Conference\" title=\"Wannsee Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation Reinhard<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_train\" title=\"Holocaust train\">Holocaust trains<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination camps<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar\" title=\"Babi Yar\">Babi Yar<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Valley_of_Death_(Bydgoszcz)\" title=\"Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz)\">Bydgoszcz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre\" title=\"Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre\">Kamianets-Podilskyi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ninth_Fort\" title=\"Ninth Fort\">Ninth Fort<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Massacres_in_Pia%C5%9Bnica\" title=\"Massacres in Pia\u015bnica\">Pia\u015bnica<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ponary_massacre\" title=\"Ponary massacre\">Ponary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rumbula_massacre\" title=\"Rumbula massacre\">Rumbula<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_Erntefest\" title=\"Aktion Erntefest\">Erntefest<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe\" title=\"Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe\">Resistance<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_partisans\" title=\"Jewish partisans\">Jewish partisans<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Ghetto uprising\">Ghetto uprisings<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><span style=\"font-size:90%;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto Uprising\">Warsaw<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li><span style=\"font-size:90%;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto uprising\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<li><span style=\"font-size:90%;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cz%C4%99stochowa_Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Cz\u0119stochowa Ghetto uprising\">Cz\u0119stochowa<\/a><\/span><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;font-weight:normal;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe\" title=\"End of World War II in Europe\">End of World War II<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Death_marches_(Holocaust)\" title=\"Death marches (Holocaust)\">Death marches<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wola_massacre\" title=\"Wola massacre\">Wola<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bricha\" title=\"Bricha\">Bricha<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sh%27erit_ha-Pletah\" title=\"Sh'erit ha-Pletah\">Displaced persons<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_denial\" title=\"Holocaust denial\">Holocaust denial<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_trivialization\" title=\"Holocaust trivialization\">trivialization<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_victims\" title=\"Holocaust victims\">Others<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Romani people <span style=\"font-size:90%;\">(gypsies)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation\" title=\"Nazi crimes against the Polish nation\">Poles<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war\" title=\"German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war\">Soviet POWs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Slavs in Eastern Europe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust\">Homosexuals<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">People with disabilities<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_persecution_of_Serbs\" title=\"World War II persecution of Serbs\">Serbs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Suppression_of_Freemasonry#Nazi_Germany_and_occupied_Europe\" title=\"Suppression of Freemasonry\">Freemasons<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany\">Jehovah's Witnesses<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_black_people_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany\">Black people<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\";\">\n<div id=\"Responsibility\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Responsibility for the Holocaust\">Responsibility<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\">Organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Party\" title=\"Nazi Party\">Nazi Party<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzstaffel\" title=\"Schutzstaffel\"><i>Schutzstaffel<\/i> (SS)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reich_Main_Security_Office\" title=\"Reich Main Security Office\">Reich Security Main Office<\/a> (RSHA)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sicherheitsdienst\" title=\"Sicherheitsdienst\">Sicherheitsdienst<\/a> (SD)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Waffen-SS\" title=\"Waffen-SS\">Waffen-SS<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht\" title=\"War crimes of the Wehrmacht\">Wehrmacht<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\">Units<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Police_Regiment_Centre\" title=\"Police Regiment Centre\">Police Regiments<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ordnungspolizei#Police_Battalions\" title=\"Ordnungspolizei\">Orpo Police Battalions<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II\">Collaborators<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ypatingasis_b%C5%ABrys\" title=\"Ypatingasis b\u016brys\">Ypatingasis b\u016brys<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_Security_Police\" title=\"Lithuanian Security Police\">Lithuanian Security Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rollkommando_Hamann\" title=\"Rollkommando Hamann\">Rollkommando Hamann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arajs_Kommando\" title=\"Arajs Kommando\">Arajs Kommando<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Ukrainian Auxiliary Police\">Ukrainian Auxiliary Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Trawniki_concentration_camp\" title=\"Trawniki concentration camp\">Trawnikis<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nederlandsche_SS\" title=\"Nederlandsche SS\">Nederlandsche SS<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Special_Brigades\" title=\"Special Brigades\">Special Brigades<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\">Individuals<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_major_perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust\">Major perpetrators<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_ideologues\" title=\"List of Nazi ideologues\">Nazi ideologues<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\";\">\n<div id=\"Early_elementsAftermathRemembrance\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">\n<div class=\"hlist\">\n<ul>\n<li>Early elements<\/li>\n<li>Aftermath<\/li>\n<li>Remembrance<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\">Early elements<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Racial policy of Nazi Germany\">Nazi racial policy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_eugenics\" title=\"Nazi eugenics\">Nazi eugenics<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_Laws\" title=\"Nuremberg Laws\">Nuremberg Laws<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Haavara_Agreement\" title=\"Haavara Agreement\">Haavara Agreement<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Madagascar_Plan\" title=\"Madagascar Plan\">Madagascar Plan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">Forced euthanasia <span style=\"font-size:90%;\">(Action T4)<\/span><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aftermath_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Aftermath of World War II\">Aftermath<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_trials\" title=\"Nuremberg trials\">Nuremberg trials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Denazification\" title=\"Denazification\">Denazification<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sh%27erit_ha-Pletah\" title=\"Sh'erit ha-Pletah\">Holocaust survivors<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Survivor_guilt\" title=\"Survivor guilt\">Survivor guilt<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reparations_Agreement_between_Israel_and_West_Germany\" title=\"Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany\">Reparations<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:7.5em\">Remembrance<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_Memorial_Days\" title=\"Holocaust Memorial Days\">Days of remembrance<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_memorials_and_museums\" title=\"List of Holocaust memorials and museums\">Memorials and museums<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"More_articles_related_to_The_Holocaust\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\"background:#e8e8ff;\">\n<div id=\"More_articles_related_to_The_Holocaust\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">More articles related to The Holocaust<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px;font-size:114%;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0px;\">\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Poland\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Poland\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Poland\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Poland\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Poland&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">The Holocaust in Poland<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<dl>\n<dt>Main article<\/dt>\n<dd><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/dd>\n<dt>Related articles by country<\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belgium\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belgium\">Belgium<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia\" title=\"The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia\">Croatia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rescue_of_the_Danish_Jews\" title=\"Rescue of the Danish Jews\">Denmark<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">Estonia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_France\" title=\"The Holocaust in France\">France<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">Latvia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Norway\" title=\"The Holocaust in Norway\">Norway<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Poland_Camps\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Poland Camps\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Poland_Camps\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Poland Camps\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Poland_Camps&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Camps.2C_ghettos_and_operations\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">Camps, ghettos and operations<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"Nazi concentration camps\">Camps<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">Extermination<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz-Birkenau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp\" title=\"Che\u0142mno extermination camp\">Che\u0142mno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation Reinhard<\/a><\/i> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Extermination_camp\" title=\"Extermination camp\">death camps<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camps\" title=\"Nazi concentration camps\">Concentration<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Krak%C3%B3w-P%C5%82asz%C3%B3w_concentration_camp\" title=\"Krak\u00f3w-P\u0142asz\u00f3w concentration camp\">Krak\u00f3w-P\u0142asz\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Potulice_concentration_camp\" title=\"Potulice concentration camp\">Potulice<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soldau_concentration_camp\" title=\"Soldau concentration camp\">Soldau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stutthof_concentration_camp\" title=\"Stutthof concentration camp\">Stutthof<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Szebnie_concentration_camp\" title=\"Szebnie concentration camp\">Szebnie<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Trawniki_concentration_camp\" title=\"Trawniki concentration camp\">Trawniki<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_concentration_camp\" title=\"Warsaw concentration camp\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Mass shootings<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_AB-Aktion_in_Poland\" title=\"German AB-Aktion in Poland\">AB Action<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_Erntefest\" title=\"Aktion Erntefest\">Erntefest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jedwabne_pogrom\" title=\"Jedwabne pogrom\">Jedwabne<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kielce_cemetery_massacre\" title=\"Kielce cemetery massacre\">Kielce cemetery<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard_in_Krak%C3%B3w\" title=\"Operation Reinhard in Krak\u00f3w\">Aktion Krakau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv pogroms<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Massacre_of_Lw%C3%B3w_professors\" title=\"Massacre of Lw\u00f3w professors\">Lw\u00f3w professors<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Palmiry\" title=\"Palmiry\">Palmiry<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderaktion_Krakau\" title=\"Sonderaktion Krakau\">Sonderaktion Krakau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Tannenberg\" title=\"Operation Tannenberg\">Tannenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tykocin_pogrom\" title=\"Tykocin pogrom\">Tykocin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Valley_of_Death_(Bydgoszcz)\" title=\"Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz)\">Bydgoszcz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/W%C4%85sosz_pogrom\" title=\"W\u0105sosz pogrom\">W\u0105sosz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stanis%C5%82aw%C3%B3w_Ghetto#Bloody_Sunday_massacre\" title=\"Stanis\u0142aw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Bloody Sunday<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe\">Ghettos<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland\" title=\"Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland\">List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939\u20131942)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/B%C4%99dzin_Ghetto\" title=\"B\u0119dzin Ghetto\">B\u0119dzin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Brze%C5%9B%C4%87_Ghetto\" title=\"Brze\u015b\u0107 Ghetto\">Brest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cz%C4%99stochowa_Ghetto\" title=\"Cz\u0119stochowa Ghetto\">Cz\u0119stochowa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Grodno_Ghetto\" title=\"Grodno Ghetto\">Grodno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Krak\u00f3w Ghetto\">Krak\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Lw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Lw\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0141\u00f3d\u017a Ghetto\">\u0141\u00f3d\u017a<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lubart%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Lubart\u00f3w Ghetto\">Lubart\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lublin_Ghetto\" title=\"Lublin Ghetto\">Lublin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mi%C4%99dzyrzec_Podlaski_Ghetto\" title=\"Mi\u0119dzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto\">Mi\u0119dzyrzec Podlaski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mizocz_Ghetto\" title=\"Mizocz Ghetto\">Mizocz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nowy_S%C4%85cz_Ghetto\" title=\"Nowy S\u0105cz Ghetto\">Nowy S\u0105cz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pi%C5%84sk_Ghetto\" title=\"Pi\u0144sk Ghetto\">Pi\u0144sk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Radom_Ghetto\" title=\"Radom Ghetto\">Radom<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/S%C5%82onim_Ghetto\" title=\"S\u0142onim Ghetto\">S\u0142onim<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sosnowiec_Ghetto\" title=\"Sosnowiec Ghetto\">Sosnowiec<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stanis%C5%82aw%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Stanis\u0142aw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Stanis\u0142aw\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vilna_Ghetto\" title=\"Vilna Ghetto\">Wilno<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Other atrocities<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">Action T4<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Grossaktion_Warsaw_(1942)\" title=\"Grossaktion Warsaw (1942)\">Grossaktion Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Human medical experimentation<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"Template:Perpetrators of the Holocaust in Poland\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"Template talk:Perpetrators of the Holocaust in Poland\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust_in_Poland&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Perpetrators.2C_participants.2C_organizations.2C_and_collaborators\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Major perpetrators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Organizers<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_B%C3%BChler\" title=\"Josef B\u00fchler\">Josef B\u00fchler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Eichmann\" title=\"Adolf Eichmann\">Eichmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Theodor_Eicke\" title=\"Theodor Eicke\">Eicke<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ludwig_Fischer\" title=\"Ludwig Fischer\">Ludwig Fischer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Frank\" title=\"Hans Frank\">Hans Frank<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Odilo_Globocnik\" title=\"Odilo Globocnik\">Globocnik<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Gl%C3%BCcks\" title=\"Richard Gl\u00fccks\">Gl\u00fccks<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arthur_Greiser\" title=\"Arthur Greiser\">Greiser<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Himmler\" title=\"Heinrich Himmler\">Himmler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_H%C3%B6fle\" title=\"Hermann H\u00f6fle\">Hermann H\u00f6fle<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fritz_Katzmann\" title=\"Fritz Katzmann\">Fritz Katzmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wilhelm_Koppe\" title=\"Wilhelm Koppe\">Wilhelm Koppe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich-Wilhelm_Kr%C3%BCger\" title=\"Friedrich-Wilhelm Kr\u00fcger\">Friedrich-Wilhelm Kr\u00fcger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Kutschera\" title=\"Franz Kutschera\">Kutschera<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erwin_Lambert\" title=\"Erwin Lambert\">Erwin Lambert<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Lerch\" title=\"Ernst Lerch\">Ernst Lerch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Oswald_Pohl\" title=\"Oswald Pohl\">Oswald Pohl<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinz_Reinefarth\" title=\"Heinz Reinefarth\">Reinefarth<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Julian_Scherner\" title=\"Julian Scherner\">Scherner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arthur_Seyss-Inquart\" title=\"Arthur Seyss-Inquart\">Seyss-Inquart<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jakob_Sporrenberg\" title=\"Jakob Sporrenberg\">Sporrenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bruno_Streckenbach\" title=\"Bruno Streckenbach\">Streckenbach<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Thomalla\" title=\"Richard Thomalla\">Thomalla<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_W%C3%A4chter\" title=\"Otto W\u00e4chter\">Otto W\u00e4chter<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dieter_Wisliceny\" title=\"Dieter Wisliceny\">Wisliceny<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Camp command<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Aumeier\" title=\"Hans Aumeier\">Aumeier<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Baer\" title=\"Richard Baer\">Baer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wilhelm_Boger\" title=\"Wilhelm Boger\">Boger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermine_Braunsteiner\" title=\"Hermine Braunsteiner\">Braunsteiner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Irmfried_Eberl\" title=\"Irmfried Eberl\">Eberl<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Theodor_van_Eupen\" title=\"Theodor van Eupen\">Eupen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kurt_Franz\" title=\"Kurt Franz\">Kurt Franz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Frenzel\" title=\"Karl Frenzel\">Karl Frenzel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Fritzsch\" title=\"Karl Fritzsch\">Karl Fritzsch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Amon_G%C3%B6th\" title=\"Amon G\u00f6th\">G\u00f6th<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Maximilian_Grabner\" title=\"Maximilian Grabner\">Grabner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fritz_Hartjenstein\" title=\"Fritz Hartjenstein\">Hartjenstein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gottlieb_Hering\" title=\"Gottlieb Hering\">Hering<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_H%C3%B6ss\" title=\"Rudolf H\u00f6ss\">H\u00f6ss<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_H%C3%B6ssler\" title=\"Franz H\u00f6ssler\">H\u00f6ssler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Kramer\" title=\"Josef Kramer\">Josef Kramer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arthur_Liebehenschel\" title=\"Arthur Liebehenschel\">Liebehenschel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Maria_Mandl\" title=\"Maria Mandl\">Mandel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Matthes\" title=\"Heinrich Matthes\">Matthes<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Michel\" title=\"Hermann Michel\">Michel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_M%C3%B6ckel\" title=\"Karl M\u00f6ckel\">M\u00f6ckel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Robert_Mulka\" title=\"Robert Mulka\">Mulka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Johann_Niemann\" title=\"Johann Niemann\">Johann Niemann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Oberhauser\" title=\"Josef Oberhauser\">Oberhauser<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Reichleitner\" title=\"Franz Reichleitner\">Reichleitner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Schwarz\" title=\"Heinrich Schwarz\">Heinrich Schwarz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Stangl\" title=\"Franz Stangl\">Stangl<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gustav_Wagner\" title=\"Gustav Wagner\">Gustav Wagner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Christian_Wirth\" title=\"Christian Wirth\">Christian Wirth<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Gas chamber executioners<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Bauer\" title=\"Erich Bauer\">Erich Bauer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kurt_Bolender\" title=\"Kurt Bolender\">Bolender<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lorenz_Hackenholt\" title=\"Lorenz Hackenholt\">Hackenholt<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Klehr\" title=\"Josef Klehr\">Klehr<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Koch_(SS_man)\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Hans Koch (SS man)\">Hans Koch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Herbert_Lange\" title=\"Herbert Lange\">Herbert Lange<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Theuer\" title=\"Adolf Theuer\">Theuer<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Physicians<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_von_Bodmann\" title=\"Franz von Bodmann\">von Bodmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Carl_Clauberg\" title=\"Carl Clauberg\">Clauberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Gebhardt\" title=\"Karl Gebhardt\">Gebhardt<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fritz_Klein\" title=\"Fritz Klein\">Fritz Klein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Mengele\" title=\"Josef Mengele\">Mengele<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Horst_Schumann\" title=\"Horst Schumann\">Horst Schumann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Trzebinski\" title=\"Alfred Trzebinski\">Trzebinski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Eduard_Wirths\" title=\"Eduard Wirths\">Eduard Wirths<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Ghetto command<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinz_Auerswald\" title=\"Heinz Auerswald\">Auerswald<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Biebow\" title=\"Hans Biebow\">Biebow<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Bl%C3%B6sche\" title=\"Josef Bl\u00f6sche\">Bl\u00f6sche<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_B%C3%BCrkl\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Franz B\u00fcrkl\">B\u00fcrkl<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Konrad_(SS_officer)\" title=\"Franz Konrad (SS officer)\">Konrad<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alexander_Palfinger\" title=\"Alexander Palfinger\">Palfinger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ferdinand_von_Sammern-Frankenegg\" title=\"Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg\">von Sammern-Frankenegg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%BCrgen_Stroop\" title=\"J\u00fcrgen Stroop\">Stroop<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wolfgang_Birkner\" title=\"Wolfgang Birkner\">Wolfgang Birkner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Paul_Blobel\" title=\"Paul Blobel\">Blobel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Felix_Landau\" title=\"Felix Landau\">Felix Landau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Schaper\" title=\"Hermann Schaper\">Schaper<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Eberhard_Sch%C3%B6ngarth\" title=\"Karl Eberhard Sch\u00f6ngarth\">Sch\u00f6ngarth<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Udo_von_Woyrsch\" title=\"Udo von Woyrsch\">von Woyrsch<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Personnel<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Camp guards<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Juana_Bormann\" title=\"Juana Bormann\">Juana Bormann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Luise_Danz\" title=\"Luise Danz\">Danz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/John_Demjanjuk\" title=\"John Demjanjuk\">Demjanjuk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Margot_Dreschel\" title=\"Margot Dreschel\">Margot Dreschel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kurt_Gerstein\" title=\"Kurt Gerstein\">Kurt Gerstein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Irma_Grese\" title=\"Irma Grese\">Grese<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl-Friedrich_H%C3%B6cker\" title=\"Karl-Friedrich H\u00f6cker\">H\u00f6cker<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Oswald_Kaduk\" title=\"Oswald Kaduk\">Kaduk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Kollmer\" title=\"Josef Kollmer\">Kollmer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Muhsfeldt\" title=\"Erich Muhsfeldt\">Muhsfeldt<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alice_Orlowski\" title=\"Alice Orlowski\">Orlowski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Elisabeth_Volkenrath\" title=\"Elisabeth Volkenrath\">Volkenrath<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">By camp<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Template:Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Template:Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Government\" title=\"General Government\">General Government<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hotel_Polski\" title=\"Hotel Polski\">Hotel Polski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/SS_Main_Economic_and_Administrative_Office\" title=\"SS Main Economic and Administrative Office\">WVHA<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reich_Commissioner_for_the_Consolidation_of_German_Nationhood\" title=\"Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Nationhood\">RKFDV<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Volksdeutsche_Mittelstelle\" title=\"Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle\">VoMi<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II#Poland\" title=\"Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II\">Collaborators<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Jewish<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Group_13\" title=\"Group 13\">Group 13<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kapo_(concentration_camp)\" title=\"Kapo (concentration camp)\">Kapo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%BBagiew\" title=\"\u017bagiew\">\u017bagiew<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Estonian, Latvian,<br \/>\nLithuanian, Belarusian<br \/>\nand Ukrainian<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzmannschaft\" title=\"Schutzmannschaft\">Schutzmannschaft<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Other nationalities<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arajs_Kommando\" title=\"Arajs Kommando\">Arajs Kommando<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Ukrainian Auxiliary Police\">Ukrainian Auxiliary Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_collaborationism_with_the_Axis_powers\" title=\"Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers\">Ukrainian collaboration<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_Security_Police\" title=\"Lithuanian Security Police\">Lithuanian Security Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Trawniki_concentration_camp\" title=\"Trawniki concentration camp\">Trawniki<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ypatingasis_b%C5%ABrys\" title=\"Ypatingasis b\u016brys\">Ypatingasis b\u016brys<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pieter_Menten\" title=\"Pieter Menten\">Pieter Menten<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Poland_Resistance\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Poland Resistance\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Poland_Resistance\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Poland Resistance\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Poland_Resistance&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Resistance:_Judenrat.2C_victims.2C_documentation_and_technical\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Home_Army\" title=\"Home Army\">AK<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Fascist_Military_Organisation\" title=\"Anti-Fascist Military Organisation\">AOB<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Jewish_Labour_Bund_in_Poland\" title=\"General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland\">Bund<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gwardia_Ludowa\" title=\"Gwardia Ludowa\">GL<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Security_Corps\" title=\"National Security Corps\">PKB<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Combat_Organization\" title=\"Jewish Combat Organization\">\u017bOB<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Military_Union\" title=\"Jewish Military Union\">\u017bZA<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Uprisings<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Ghetto uprising\">Ghetto uprisings<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Bia\u0142ystok Ghetto uprising\">Bia\u0142ystok<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cz%C4%99stochowa_Ghetto_uprising\" title=\"Cz\u0119stochowa Ghetto uprising\">Cz\u0119stochowa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp#The_uprising\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising\" title=\"Warsaw Ghetto Uprising\">Warsaw Ghetto Uprising<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Leaders<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mordechai_Anielewicz\" title=\"Mordechai Anielewicz\">Mordechai Anielewicz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dawid_Moryc_Apfelbaum\" title=\"Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum\">Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yitzhak_Zuckerman\" title=\"Yitzhak Zuckerman\">Icchak Cukierman<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Marek_Edelman\" title=\"Marek Edelman\">Marek Edelman<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Leon_Feldhendler\" title=\"Leon Feldhendler\">Leon Feldhendler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pawe%C5%82_Frenkiel\" title=\"Pawe\u0142 Frenkiel\">Pawe\u0142 Frenkiel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Henryk_Iwa%C5%84ski\" title=\"Henryk Iwa\u0144ski\">Henryk Iwa\u0144ski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Itzhak_Katzenelson\" title=\"Itzhak Katzenelson\">Itzhak Katzenelson<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Micha%C5%82_Klepfisz\" title=\"Micha\u0142 Klepfisz\">Micha\u0142 Klepfisz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Miles_Lerman\" title=\"Miles Lerman\">Miles Lerman<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alexander_Pechersky\" title=\"Alexander Pechersky\">Alexander Pechersky<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Witold_Pilecki\" title=\"Witold Pilecki\">Witold Pilecki<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Frumka_P%C5%82otnicka\" title=\"Frumka P\u0142otnicka\">Frumka P\u0142otnicka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Roza_Robota\" title=\"Roza Robota\">Roza Robota<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Szmul_Zygielbojm\" title=\"Szmul Zygielbojm\">Szmul Zygielbojm<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Judenrat\" title=\"Judenrat\">Judenrat<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Ghetto_Police\" title=\"Jewish Ghetto Police\">Jewish Ghetto Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adam_Czerniak%C3%B3w\" title=\"Adam Czerniak\u00f3w\">Adam Czerniak\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Chaim_Rumkowski\" title=\"Chaim Rumkowski\">Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Victim lists<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Ghettos<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_the_Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Category:People who died in the Krak\u00f3w Ghetto\">Krak\u00f3w<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_the_%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto\" title=\"Category:People who died in the \u0141\u00f3d\u017a Ghetto\">\u0141\u00f3d\u017a<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_the_Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto\" title=\"Category:People who died in the Lw\u00f3w Ghetto\">Lvov (Lw\u00f3w)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_the_Warsaw_Ghetto\" title=\"Category:People who died in the Warsaw Ghetto\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Camps<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Auschwitz_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Auschwitz concentration camp\">Auschwitz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Be\u0142\u017cec extermination camp\">Be\u0142\u017cec<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Gross-Rosen_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Gross-Rosen concentration camp\">Gross-Rosen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Izbica_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Izbica concentration camp\">Izbica<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Majdanek_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Majdanek concentration camp\">Majdanek<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Sobib\u00f3r extermination camp\">Sobib\u00f3r<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Soldau_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Soldau concentration camp\">Soldau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Stutthof_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Stutthof concentration camp\">Stutthof<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Trawniki_concentration_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Trawniki concentration camp\">Trawniki<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:People_who_died_in_Treblinka_extermination_camp\" title=\"Category:People who died in Treblinka extermination camp\">Treblinka<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Documentation<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Nazi sources<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_Album\" title=\"Auschwitz Album\">Auschwitz Album<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/August_Frank_memorandum\" title=\"August Frank memorandum\">Frank Memorandum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/H%C3%B6cker_Album\" title=\"H\u00f6cker Album\">H\u00f6cker Album<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/H%C3%B6fle_Telegram\" title=\"H\u00f6fle Telegram\">H\u00f6fle Telegram<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Katzmann_Report\" title=\"Katzmann Report\">Katzmann Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Korherr_Report\" title=\"Korherr Report\">Korherr Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lublin_Reservation\" title=\"Lublin Reservation\">Nisko Plan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Posen_speeches\" title=\"Posen speeches\">Posen speeches<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Special_Prosecution_Book-Poland\" title=\"Special Prosecution Book-Poland\">Special Prosecution Book-Poland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stroop_Report\" title=\"Stroop Report\">Stroop Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wannsee_Conference\" title=\"Wannsee Conference\">Wannsee Conference<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Witness accounts<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Friedrich_Graebe\" title=\"Hermann Friedrich Graebe\">Graebe affidavit<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gerstein_Report\" title=\"Gerstein Report\">Gerstein Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vrba%E2%80%93Wetzler_report\" title=\"Vrba\u2013Wetzler report\">Vrba\u2013Wetzler report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Witold%27s_Report\" title=\"Witold's Report\">Witold's Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderkommando_photographs\" title=\"Sonderkommando photographs\"><i>Sonderkommando<\/i> photographs<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Concealment<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderaktion_1005\" title=\"Sonderaktion 1005\">Sonderaktion 1005<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Technical and logistics<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_concentration_camp_badge\" title=\"Nazi concentration camp badge\">Identification in camps<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_chamber#Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Gas chamber\">Gas chamber<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gas_van\" title=\"Gas van\">Gas van<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_train\" title=\"Holocaust train\">Holocaust train<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Human medical experimentation<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zyklon_B\" title=\"Zyklon B\">Zyklon B<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Poland_Aftermath\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Poland Aftermath\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Poland_Aftermath\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Poland Aftermath\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Poland_Aftermath&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Aftermath.2C_trials_and_commemoration\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\">Aftermath, trials and commemoration<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Aftermath of the Holocaust\">Aftermath<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sh%27erit_ha-Pletah\" title=\"Sh'erit ha-Pletah\">Holocaust survivors<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_population_transfers_(1944%E2%80%931946)\" title=\"Polish population transfers (1944\u20131946)\">Polish population transfers (1944\u20131946)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bricha\" title=\"Bricha\">Bricha<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kielce_pogrom\" title=\"Kielce pogrom\">Kielce pogrom<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Jewish_violence_in_Poland,_1944%E2%80%9346\" title=\"Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944\u201346\">Anti-Jewish violence, 1944\u201346<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ministry_of_Public_Security_(Poland)\" title=\"Ministry of Public Security (Poland)\">Ministry of Public Security<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Holocaust_trials\" title=\"Category:Holocaust trials\">Trials<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">West German trials<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Frankfurt_Auschwitz_trials\" title=\"Frankfurt Auschwitz trials\">Frankfurt Auschwitz trials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treblinka_trials\" title=\"Treblinka trials\">Treblinka trials<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Polish, East German, and Soviet trials<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz_trial\" title=\"Auschwitz trial\">Auschwitz trial (Poland)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stutthof_trials\" title=\"Stutthof trials\">Stutthof trials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extraordinary_State_Commission\" title=\"Extraordinary State Commission\">Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Holocaust_memorials_and_museums\" title=\"List of Holocaust memorials and museums\">Memorials<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/POLIN_Museum_of_the_History_of_Polish_Jews\" title=\"POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews\">Museum of the History of Polish Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Auschwitz-Birkenau_Memorial_and_Museum\" title=\"Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum\">Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Majdanek_State_Museum\" title=\"Majdanek State Museum\">Majdanek State Museum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sobib%C3%B3r_Museum\" title=\"Sobib\u00f3r Museum\">Sobib\u00f3r Museum<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Youth_Meeting_Center_in_O%C5%9Bwi%C4%99cim\/Auschwitz\" title=\"International Youth Meeting Center in O\u015bwi\u0119cim\/Auschwitz\">International Youth Meeting Center in O\u015bwi\u0119cim\/Auschwitz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/March_of_the_Living\" title=\"March of the Living\">March of the Living<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Righteous Among the Nations\">Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Polish Righteous Among the Nations\">Polish Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust\">Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Garden_of_the_Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations\">Garden of the Righteous<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Ukraine\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Ukraine\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Ukraine\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Ukraine\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Ukraine&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">The Holocaust in Ukraine<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Main article<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/dd>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Related articles by country<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">Estonia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">Latvia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Norway\" title=\"The Holocaust in Norway\">Norway<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Crimes<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar\" title=\"Babi Yar\">Babi Yar<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drobytsky_Yar\" title=\"Drobytsky Yar\">Drobytsky Yar<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drohobycz_Ghetto\" title=\"Drohobycz Ghetto\">Drohobych<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre\" title=\"Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre\">Kamianets-Podilskyi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv pogroms<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mizocz_Ghetto\" title=\"Mizocz Ghetto\">Mizocz Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1941_Odessa_massacre\" title=\"1941 Odessa massacre\">Odessa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pripyat_swamps_(punitive_operation)\" title=\"Pripyat swamps (punitive operation)\">Pripyat Swamps<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Major perpetrators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Paul_Blobel\" title=\"Paul Blobel\">Paul Blobel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Werner_Braune\" title=\"Werner Braune\">Werner Braune<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lothar_Fendler\" title=\"Lothar Fendler\">Lothar Fendler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Frank\" title=\"Hans Frank\">Hans Frank<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/G%C3%BCnther_Herrmann_(SS_commander)\" title=\"G\u00fcnther Herrmann (SS commander)\">G\u00fcnther Herrmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich_Jeckeln\" title=\"Friedrich Jeckeln\">Friedrich Jeckeln<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner\" title=\"Ernst Kaltenbrunner\">Ernst Kaltenbrunner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fritz_Katzmann\" title=\"Fritz Katzmann\">Fritz Katzmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Koch\" title=\"Erich Koch\">Erich Koch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Felix_Landau\" title=\"Felix Landau\">Felix Landau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gustav_Adolf_Nosske\" title=\"Gustav Adolf Nosske\">Gustav Adolf Nosske<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_Ohlendorf\" title=\"Otto Ohlendorf\">Otto Ohlendorf<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Paul_Radomski\" title=\"Paul Radomski\">Paul Otto Radomski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_Rasch\" title=\"Otto Rasch\">Otto Rasch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Walter_Schimana\" title=\"Walter Schimana\">Walter Schimana<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erwin_Schulz\" title=\"Erwin Schulz\">Erwin Schulz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Seetzen\" title=\"Heinrich Seetzen\">Heinrich Seetzen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_W%C3%A4chter\" title=\"Otto W\u00e4chter\">Otto W\u00e4chter<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dieter_Wisliceny\" title=\"Dieter Wisliceny\">Dieter Wisliceny<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Nazi occupation and organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Police_Regiment_South\" title=\"Police Regiment South\">Police Regiment South<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reichskommissariat_Ukraine\" title=\"Reichskommissariat Ukraine\">Reichskommissariat Ukraine<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_collaborationism_with_the_Axis_powers\" title=\"Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers\">Collaborators<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\"><i>Individuals<\/i><\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vladimir_Katriuk\" title=\"Vladimir Katriuk\">Vladimir Katriuk<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Petro_Voinovsky\" title=\"Petro Voinovsky\">Petro Voinovsky<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Petro_Zakhvalynsky\" title=\"Petro Zakhvalynsky\">Petro Zakhvalynsky<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\"><i>Organizations<\/i><\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzmannschaft\" title=\"Schutzmannschaft\">Schutzmannschaft<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Ukrainian Auxiliary Police\">Ukrainian Auxiliary Police<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nachtigall_Battalion\" title=\"Nachtigall Battalion\">Nachtigall Battalion<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Ghettos, camps and prisons<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bogdanovka\" title=\"Bogdanovka\">Bogdanovka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drohobycz_Ghetto\" title=\"Drohobycz Ghetto\">Drohobych Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Syrets_concentration_camp\" title=\"Syrets concentration camp\">Syrets concentration camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vapniarka_concentration_camp\" title=\"Vapniarka concentration camp\">Vapniarka concentration camp<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Resistance and survivors<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Priest%27s_Grotto\" title=\"Priest's Grotto\">Priest's Grotto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Syrets_concentration_camp#Inmate_revolt\" title=\"Syrets concentration camp\">Syrets inmate revolt<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Planning, methods,<br \/>\ndocuments and evidence<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\"><i>Planning<\/i><\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Generalplan Ost<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Volksliste\" title=\"Volksliste\">Volksliste<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\"><i>Evidence<\/i><\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Friedrich_Graebe\" title=\"Hermann Friedrich Graebe\">Graebe affidavit<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Concealment and <a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_denial\" title=\"Holocaust denial\">denial<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderaktion_1005\" title=\"Sonderaktion 1005\">Sonderaktion 1005<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Investigations and trials<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen_trial\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen trial\">Einsatzgruppen trial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extraordinary_State_Commission\" title=\"Extraordinary State Commission\">Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Righteous Among the Nations\">Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Clement_Sheptytsky\" title=\"Clement Sheptytsky\">Klymentiy Sheptytsky<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Omelyan_Kovch\" title=\"Omelyan Kovch\">Omelyan Kovch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Friedrich_Graebe\" title=\"Hermann Friedrich Graebe\">Hermann Friedrich Graebe<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Memorials<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar_memorials\" title=\"Babi Yar memorials\">Babi Yar memorials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_victims_of_the_Babi_Yar_massacre\" title=\"List of victims of the Babi Yar massacre\">List of Babi Yar victims<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">See also<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Carpathian_Ruthenia\" title=\"History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia\">History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Transnistria_Governorate\" title=\"Transnistria Governorate\">Transnistria Governorate<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Lithuania\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Lithuania\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Lithuania\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Lithuania\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Lithuania&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">The Holocaust in Lithuania<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Main article<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/dd>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Related articles by country<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">Estonia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">Latvia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">People<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Perpetrators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Algimantas_Dailid%C4%97\" title=\"Algimantas Dailid\u0117\">Algimantas Dailid\u0117<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Ehrlinger\" title=\"Erich Ehrlinger\">Erich Ehrlinger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joachim_Hamann\" title=\"Joachim Hamann\">Joachim Hamann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_J%C3%A4ger\" title=\"Karl J\u00e4ger\">Karl J\u00e4ger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bruno_Kittel\" title=\"Bruno Kittel\">Bruno Kittel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Algirdas_Klimaitis\" title=\"Algirdas Klimaitis\">Algirdas Klimaitis<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hinrich_Lohse\" title=\"Hinrich Lohse\">Hinrich Lohse<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Murer\" title=\"Franz Murer\">Franz Murer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Helmut_Rauca\" title=\"Helmut Rauca\">Helmut Rauca<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adrian_von_Renteln\" title=\"Adrian von Renteln\">Adrian von Renteln<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Joachim_Seck\" title=\"Rudolf Joachim Seck\">Rudolf Joachim Seck<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Walter_Stahlecker\" title=\"Franz Walter Stahlecker\">Franz Walter Stahlecker<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Weiss_(Nazi_official)\" title=\"Martin Weiss (Nazi official)\">Martin Weiss<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Victims and<br \/>\nresistance<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kazys_Binkis\" title=\"Kazys Binkis\">Kazys Binkis<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alexander_Bogen\" title=\"Alexander Bogen\">Alexander Bogen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Glazman\" title=\"Josef Glazman\">Josef Glazman<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jay_M._Ipson\" title=\"Jay M. Ipson\">Jay M. Ipson<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zelig_Kalmanovich\" title=\"Zelig Kalmanovich\">Zelig Kalmanovich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Abba_Kovner\" title=\"Abba Kovner\">Abba Kovner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ephraim_Oshry\" title=\"Ephraim Oshry\">Ephraim Oshry<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Plagge\" title=\"Karl Plagge\">Karl Plagge<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ona_%C5%A0imait%C4%97\" title=\"Ona \u0160imait\u0117\">Ona \u0160imait\u0117<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Chiune_Sugihara\" title=\"Chiune Sugihara\">Chiune Sugihara<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Abraham_Sutzkever\" title=\"Abraham Sutzkever\">Abraham Sutzkever<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Elchonon_Wasserman\" title=\"Elchonon Wasserman\">Elchonon Wasserman<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yitzhak_Wittenberg\" title=\"Yitzhak Wittenberg\">Yitzhak Wittenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jakub_Wygodzki\" title=\"Jakub Wygodzki\">Jacob Wygodzki<\/a><\/li>\n<li>See also: <a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Lithuanian_Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations\">List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Songs_of_the_Vilna_Ghetto\" title=\"Songs of the Vilna Ghetto\">Songs of the Vilna Ghetto<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Groups<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Perpetrators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_Auxiliary_Police_Battalions\" title=\"Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions\">Police Battalions<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_Security_Police\" title=\"Lithuanian Security Police\">Lithuanian Security Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rollkommando_Hamann\" title=\"Rollkommando Hamann\">Rollkommando Hamann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_TDA_Battalions\" title=\"Lithuanian TDA Battalions\">TDA<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ypatingasis_b%C5%ABrys\" title=\"Ypatingasis b\u016brys\">Ypatingasis b\u016brys<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Resistance<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fareynikte_Partizaner_Organizatsye\" title=\"Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye\">Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Events<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%A4ger_Report\" title=\"J\u00e4ger Report\">J\u00e4ger Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaunas_pogrom\" title=\"Kaunas pogrom\">Kaunas June 1941<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaunas_massacre_of_October_29,_1941\" title=\"Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941\">Kaunas 29 October 1941<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ninth_Fort_massacres_of_November_1941\" title=\"Ninth Fort massacres of November 1941\">Ninth Fort November 1941<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ponary_massacre\" title=\"Ponary massacre\">Ponary<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Places<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/HKP_562_forced_labor_camp\" title=\"HKP 562 forced labor camp\">HKP 562 forced labor camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kailis_forced_labor_camp\" title=\"Kailis forced labor camp\">Kailis forced labor camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kovno_Ghetto\" title=\"Kovno Ghetto\">Kovno Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Luki%C5%A1k%C4%97s_Prison\" title=\"Luki\u0161k\u0117s Prison\">Luki\u0161k\u0117s Prison<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Marcinkonys_Ghetto\" title=\"Marcinkonys Ghetto\">Marcinkonys Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ninth_Fort\" title=\"Ninth Fort\">Ninth Fort<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%A0iauliai_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0160iauliai Ghetto\">\u0160iauliai Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%A0ven%C4%8Dionys_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0160ven\u010dionys Ghetto\">\u0160ven\u010dionys Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vilna_Ghetto\" title=\"Vilna Ghetto\">Vilna Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_occupation_of_Lithuania_during_World_War_II\" title=\"German occupation of Lithuania during World War II\">Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Lithuania\" title=\"History of the Jews in Lithuania\">History of the Jews in Lithuania<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible collapsed navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Latvia\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Latvia\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Latvia\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Latvia\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Latvia&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">The Holocaust in Latvia<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Main article<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/dd>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Related articles by country<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">Estonia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Norway\" title=\"The Holocaust in Norway\">Norway<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Crimes<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Burning_of_the_Riga_synagogues\" title=\"Burning of the Riga synagogues\">Burning of the Riga synagogues<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/D%C3%BCnam%C3%BCnde_Action\" title=\"D\u00fcnam\u00fcnde Action\">D\u00fcnam\u00fcnde Action<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jelgava_massacres\" title=\"Jelgava massacres\">Jelgava<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Daugavpils_Ghetto\" title=\"Daugavpils Ghetto\">Pogulianski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rumbula_massacre\" title=\"Rumbula massacre\">Rumbula<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Liep%C4%81ja_massacres\" title=\"Liep\u0101ja massacres\">Liep\u0101ja (\u0160\u0137\u0113de)<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Victims<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Latvia\" title=\"History of the Jews in Latvia\">Jewish people of Latvia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Gypsies<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joseph_Carlebach\" title=\"Joseph Carlebach\">Joseph Carlebach<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Simon_Dubnow\" title=\"Simon Dubnow\">Simon Dubnow<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Else_Hirsch\" title=\"Else Hirsch\">Else Hirsch<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Perpetrators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alois_Brunner\" title=\"Alois Brunner\">Alois Brunner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Batz\" title=\"Rudolf Batz\">Rudolf Batz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fritz_Dietrich_(Nazi)\" title=\"Fritz Dietrich (Nazi)\">Fritz Dietrich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto-Heinrich_Drechsler\" title=\"Otto-Heinrich Drechsler\">Otto-Heinrich Drechsler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Ehrlinger\" title=\"Erich Ehrlinger\">Erich Ehrlinger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_J%C3%A4ger\" title=\"Karl J\u00e4ger\">Karl J\u00e4ger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich_Jeckeln\" title=\"Friedrich Jeckeln\">Friedrich Jeckeln<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinz_Jost\" title=\"Heinz Jost\">Heinz Jost<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Konr%C4%81ds_Kal%C4%93js\" title=\"Konr\u0101ds Kal\u0113js\">Konr\u0101ds Kal\u0113js<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner\" title=\"Ernst Kaltenbrunner\">Ernst Kaltenbrunner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wolfgang_K%C3%BCgler\" title=\"Wolfgang K\u00fcgler\">Wolfgang K\u00fcgler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Lange\" title=\"Rudolf Lange\">Rudolf Lange<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hinrich_Lohse\" title=\"Hinrich Lohse\">Hinrich Lohse<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich_Panzinger\" title=\"Friedrich Panzinger\">Friedrich Panzinger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans-Adolf_Pr%C3%BCtzmann\" title=\"Hans-Adolf Pr\u00fctzmann\">Hans-Adolf Pr\u00fctzmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Eduard_Roschmann\" title=\"Eduard Roschmann\">Eduard Roschmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Rosenberg\" title=\"Alfred Rosenberg\">Alfred Rosenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Sandberger\" title=\"Martin Sandberger\">Martin Sandberger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Albert_Sauer\" title=\"Albert Sauer\">Albert Sauer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Joachim_Seck\" title=\"Rudolf Joachim Seck\">Rudolf Joachim Seck<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Walter_Stahlecker\" title=\"Franz Walter Stahlecker\">Franz Walter Stahlecker<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Eduard_Strauch\" title=\"Eduard Strauch\">Eduard Strauch<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Nazi occupation and organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reichskommissariat_Ostland\" title=\"Reichskommissariat Ostland\">Reichskommissariat Ostland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rollkommando_Hamann\" title=\"Rollkommando Hamann\">Rollkommando Hamann<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II#Latvia\" title=\"Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II\">Collaborators<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Individuals<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Viktors_Ar%C4%81js\" title=\"Viktors Ar\u0101js\">Viktors Ar\u0101js<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Herberts_Cukurs\" title=\"Herberts Cukurs\">Herberts Cukurs<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/K%C4%81rlis_Lobe\" title=\"K\u0101rlis Lobe\">K\u0101rlis Lobe<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Organizations<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arajs_Kommando\" title=\"Arajs Kommando\">Arajs Kommando<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Latvian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Latvian Auxiliary Police\">Latvian Auxiliary Police<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzmannschaft\" title=\"Schutzmannschaft\">Schutzmannschaft<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Ghettos and camps<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Daugavpils_Ghetto\" title=\"Daugavpils Ghetto\">Daugavpils Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jungfernhof_concentration_camp\" title=\"Jungfernhof concentration camp\">Jungfernhof concentration camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaiserwald_concentration_camp\" title=\"Kaiserwald concentration camp\">Kaiserwald concentration camp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Riga_Ghetto\" title=\"Riga Ghetto\">Riga Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Salaspils_concentration_camp\" title=\"Salaspils concentration camp\">Salaspils concentration camp<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Documentation<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Generalplan Ost<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%A4ger_Report\" title=\"J\u00e4ger Report\">J\u00e4ger Report<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Concealment<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderaktion_1005\" title=\"Sonderaktion 1005\">Sonderaktion 1005<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">War crimes investigations and trials<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen_trial\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen trial\">Einsatzgruppen trial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Extraordinary_State_Commission\" title=\"Extraordinary State Commission\">Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Righteous Among the Nations\">Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C4%81nis_Lipke\" title=\"J\u0101nis Lipke\">J\u0101nis Lipke<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/w\/index.php?title=Roberts_Sedols&action=edit&redlink=1\" class=\"new\" title=\"Roberts Sedols (page does not exist)\">Roberts Sedols<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Memorials<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bikernieki_Memorial\" title=\"Bikernieki Memorial\">Bikernieki Memorial<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Related articles<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_occupation_of_Latvia_during_World_War_II\" title=\"German occupation of Latvia during World War II\">Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Holocaust_Estonia\" title=\"Template:Holocaust Estonia\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Holocaust_Estonia\" title=\"Template talk:Holocaust Estonia\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Holocaust_Estonia&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">The Holocaust in Estonia<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div>\n<dl>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Main article<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/dd>\n<dt><span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">Related articles by country<\/span><\/dt>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">Latvia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Norway\" title=\"The Holocaust in Norway\">Norway<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/dd>\n<dd><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/dd>\n<\/dl>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Crimes<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kalevi-Liiva\" title=\"Kalevi-Liiva\">Kalevi-Liiva<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Prominent victims<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zelig_Kalmanovich\" title=\"Zelig Kalmanovich\">Zelig Kalmanovich<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Major perpetrators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Aumeier\" title=\"Hans Aumeier\">Hans Aumeier<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_J%C3%A4ger\" title=\"Karl J\u00e4ger\">Karl J\u00e4ger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner\" title=\"Ernst Kaltenbrunner\">Ernst Kaltenbrunner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aleksander_Laak\" title=\"Aleksander Laak\">Aleksander Laak<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hinrich_Lohse\" title=\"Hinrich Lohse\">Hinrich Lohse<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ain-Ervin_Mere\" title=\"Ain-Ervin Mere\">Ain-Ervin Mere<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Rosenberg\" title=\"Alfred Rosenberg\">Alfred Rosenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Sandberger\" title=\"Martin Sandberger\">Martin Sandberger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Joachim_Seck\" title=\"Rudolf Joachim Seck\">Rudolf Joachim Seck<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Walter_Stahlecker\" title=\"Franz Walter Stahlecker\">Franz Walter Stahlecker<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Nazi occupation and organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reichskommissariat_Ostland\" title=\"Reichskommissariat Ostland\">Reichskommissariat Ostland<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II#Estonia\" title=\"Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II\">Notable collaborators<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Linnas\" title=\"Karl Linnas\">Karl Linnas<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Evald_Mikson\" title=\"Evald Mikson\">Evald Mikson<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Concentration camps<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Klooga_concentration_camp\" title=\"Klooga concentration camp\">Klooga<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%A4gala_concentration_camp\" title=\"J\u00e4gala concentration camp\">J\u00e4gala<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vaivara_concentration_camp\" title=\"Vaivara concentration camp\">Vaivara<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Documentation<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%A4ger_Report\" title=\"J\u00e4ger Report\">J\u00e4ger Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Judenfrei\" title=\"Judenfrei\">Judenfrei<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Concealment<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderaktion_1005\" title=\"Sonderaktion 1005\">Sonderaktion 1005<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">War crimes investigations and trials<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen_trial\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen trial\">Einsatzgruppen trial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_trials_in_Soviet_Estonia\" title=\"Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia\">Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Estonian_International_Commission_for_Investigation_of_Crimes_Against_Humanity\" title=\"Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity\">Estonian International Commission<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Righteous_Among_the_Nations\" title=\"Righteous Among the Nations\">Righteous Among the Nations<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Uku_Masing\" title=\"Uku Masing\">Uku Masing<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Uku_Masing\" title=\"Uku Masing\">Eha Masing<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/w\/index.php?title=Polina_Lentsman&action=edit&redlink=1\" class=\"new\" title=\"Polina Lentsman (page does not exist)\">Polina Lentsman<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Related articles<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_the_Jews_in_Estonia\" title=\"History of the Jews in Estonia\">History of the Jews in Estonia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Estonia_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Estonia in World War II\">Estonia in World War II<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_occupation_of_Estonia_during_World_War_II\" title=\"German occupation of Estonia during World War II\">Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"Einsatzgruppen_and_Einsatzkommandos\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Template:Einsatzgruppen\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Template talk:Einsatzgruppen\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Einsatzgruppen&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Einsatzgruppen_and_Einsatzkommandos\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen\">Einsatzgruppen<\/a><\/i> and <i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzkommando\" title=\"Einsatzkommando\">Einsatzkommandos<\/a><\/i><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%\">People<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Director<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reinhard_Heydrich\" title=\"Reinhard Heydrich\">Reinhard Heydrich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner\" title=\"Ernst Kaltenbrunner\">Ernst Kaltenbrunner<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Commanders of<br \/>\n<i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Humbert_Achamer-Pifrader\" title=\"Humbert Achamer-Pifrader\">Humbert Achamer-Pifrader<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Walther_Bierkamp\" title=\"Walther Bierkamp\">Walther Bierkamp<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Horst_B%C3%B6hme_(SS_officer)\" title=\"Horst B\u00f6hme (SS officer)\">Horst B\u00f6hme<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Ehrlinger\" title=\"Erich Ehrlinger\">Erich Ehrlinger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wilhelm_Fuchs\" title=\"Wilhelm Fuchs\">Wilhelm Fuchs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinz_Jost\" title=\"Heinz Jost\">Heinz Jost<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_Naumann\" title=\"Erich Naumann\">Erich Naumann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arthur_Nebe\" title=\"Arthur Nebe\">Arthur Nebe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_Ohlendorf\" title=\"Otto Ohlendorf\">Otto Ohlendorf<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich_Panzinger\" title=\"Friedrich Panzinger\">Friedrich Panzinger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_Rasch\" title=\"Otto Rasch\">Otto Rasch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Seetzen\" title=\"Heinrich Seetzen\">Heinrich Seetzen<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Walter_Stahlecker\" title=\"Franz Walter Stahlecker\">Franz Walter Stahlecker<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bruno_Streckenbach\" title=\"Bruno Streckenbach\">Bruno Streckenbach<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Commanders of<br \/>\n<i>Einsatzkommandos<\/i>,<br \/>\n<i>Sonderkommandos<\/i><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erich_von_dem_Bach-Zelewski\" title=\"Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski\">Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Batz\" title=\"Rudolf Batz\">Rudolf Batz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Biberstein\" title=\"Ernst Biberstein\">Ernst Biberstein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wolfgang_Birkner\" title=\"Wolfgang Birkner\">Wolfgang Birkner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Helmut_Bischoff\" title=\"Helmut Bischoff\">Helmut Bischoff<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Paul_Blobel\" title=\"Paul Blobel\">Paul Blobel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Walter_Blume_(SS_officer)\" title=\"Walter Blume (SS officer)\">Walter Blume<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich-Wilhelm_Bock\" title=\"Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock\">Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_Bradfisch\" title=\"Otto Bradfisch\">Otto Bradfisch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Werner_Braune\" title=\"Werner Braune\">Werner Braune<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich_Buchardt\" title=\"Friedrich Buchardt\">Friedrich Buchardt<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Fritz_Dietrich_(Nazi)\" title=\"Fritz Dietrich (Nazi)\">Fritz Dietrich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_J%C3%A4ger\" title=\"Karl J\u00e4ger\">Karl J\u00e4ger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Friedrich_Jeckeln\" title=\"Friedrich Jeckeln\">Friedrich Jeckeln<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Waldemar_Klingelh%C3%B6fer\" title=\"Waldemar Klingelh\u00f6fer\">Waldemar Klingelh\u00f6fer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wolfgang_K%C3%BCgler\" title=\"Wolfgang K\u00fcgler\">Wolfgang K\u00fcgler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Walter_Kutschmann\" title=\"Walter Kutschmann\">Walter Kutschmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Lange\" title=\"Rudolf Lange\">Rudolf Lange<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gustav_Adolf_Nosske\" title=\"Gustav Adolf Nosske\">Gustav Adolf Nosske<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans-Adolf_Pr%C3%BCtzmann\" title=\"Hans-Adolf Pr\u00fctzmann\">Hans-Adolf Pr\u00fctzmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Walter_Rauff\" title=\"Walter Rauff\">Walter Rauff<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Sandberger\" title=\"Martin Sandberger\">Martin Sandberger<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Schaper\" title=\"Hermann Schaper\">Hermann Schaper<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Karl_Eberhard_Sch%C3%B6ngarth\" title=\"Karl Eberhard Sch\u00f6ngarth\">Karl Eberhard Sch\u00f6ngarth<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Erwin_Schulz\" title=\"Erwin Schulz\">Erwin Schulz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Franz_Six\" title=\"Franz Six\">Franz Six<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Eugen_Steimle\" title=\"Eugen Steimle\">Eugen Steimle<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Eduard_Strauch\" title=\"Eduard Strauch\">Eduard Strauch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Weiss_(Nazi_official)\" title=\"Martin Weiss (Nazi official)\">Martin Weiss<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Udo_von_Woyrsch\" title=\"Udo von Woyrsch\">Udo von Woyrsch<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Other members<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/August_Becker\" title=\"August Becker\">August Becker<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lothar_Fendler\" title=\"Lothar Fendler\">Lothar Fendler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joachim_Hamann\" title=\"Joachim Hamann\">Joachim Hamann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Emil_Haussmann\" title=\"Emil Haussmann\">Emil Haussmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Felix_Landau\" title=\"Felix Landau\">Felix Landau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Albert_Widmann\" title=\"Albert Widmann\">Albert Widmann<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Collaborators<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Viktors_Ar%C4%81js\" title=\"Viktors Ar\u0101js\">Viktors Ar\u0101js<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Herberts_Cukurs\" title=\"Herberts Cukurs\">Herberts Cukurs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antanas_Impulevi%C4%8Dius\" title=\"Antanas Impulevi\u010dius\">Antanas Impulevi\u010dius<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Konr%C4%81ds_Kal%C4%93js\" title=\"Konr\u0101ds Kal\u0113js\">Konr\u0101ds Kal\u0113js<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Algirdas_Klimaitis\" title=\"Algirdas Klimaitis\">Algirdas Klimaitis<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%\">Groups<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">German<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzstaffel\" title=\"Schutzstaffel\">SS<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reich_Main_Security_Office\" title=\"Reich Main Security Office\">RSHA<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sicherheitsdienst\" title=\"Sicherheitsdienst\">SD<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ordnungspolizei\" title=\"Ordnungspolizei\">Orpo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/8th_SS_Cavalry_Division_Florian_Geyer\" title=\"8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer\">8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Volksdeutscher_Selbstschutz\" title=\"Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz\">Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sonderdienst\" title=\"Sonderdienst\">Sonderdienst<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Non-German<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzmannschaft\" title=\"Schutzmannschaft\">Schutzmannschaft<\/a><\/i> (<a href=\"\/wiki\/Belarusian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Belarusian Auxiliary Police\">Belarusian<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Estonian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Estonian Auxiliary Police\">Estonian<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Latvian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Latvian Auxiliary Police\">Latvian<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_Auxiliary_Police_Battalions\" title=\"Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions\">Lithuanian<\/a>, <a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_Auxiliary_Police\" title=\"Ukrainian Auxiliary Police\">Ukrainian<\/a>)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arajs_Kommando\" title=\"Arajs Kommando\">Arajs <i>Kommando<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_Security_Police\" title=\"Lithuanian Security Police\">Lithuanian Security Police<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rollkommando_Hamann\" title=\"Rollkommando Hamann\"><i>Rollkommando<\/i> Hamann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lithuanian_TDA_Battalions\" title=\"Lithuanian TDA Battalions\">TDA<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ypatingasis_b%C5%ABrys\" title=\"Ypatingasis b\u016brys\">Ypatingasis b\u016brys<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%\">Crimes<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus\" title=\"The Holocaust in Belarus\">Belarus<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/%C5%81achwa_Ghetto\" title=\"\u0141achwa Ghetto\">\u0141achwa Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Minsk_Ghetto\" title=\"Minsk Ghetto\">Minsk Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Slutsk_Affair\" title=\"Slutsk Affair\">Slutsk Affair<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Estonia\">Estonia<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kalevi-Liiva\" title=\"Kalevi-Liiva\">Kalevi-Liiva<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Latvia\">Latvia<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Burning_of_the_Riga_synagogues\" title=\"Burning of the Riga synagogues\">Burning of the Riga synagogues<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/D%C3%BCnam%C3%BCnde_Action\" title=\"D\u00fcnam\u00fcnde Action\">D\u00fcnam\u00fcnde Action<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jelgava_massacres\" title=\"Jelgava massacres\">Jelgava<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Daugavpils_Ghetto\" title=\"Daugavpils Ghetto\">Pogulianski<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rumbula_massacre\" title=\"Rumbula massacre\">Rumbula<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Liep%C4%81ja_massacres\" title=\"Liep\u0101ja massacres\">Liep\u0101ja (\u0160\u0137\u0113de)<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania\" title=\"The Holocaust in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ninth_Fort\" title=\"Ninth Fort\">Ninth Fort<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaunas_pogrom\" title=\"Kaunas pogrom\">Kaunas June 1941<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kaunas_massacre_of_October_29,_1941\" title=\"Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941\">Kaunas 29 October 1941<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ninth_Fort_massacres_of_November_1941\" title=\"Ninth Fort massacres of November 1941\">Ninth Fort November 1941<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ponary_massacre\" title=\"Ponary massacre\">Ponary<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Poland\" title=\"The Holocaust in Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Tannenberg\" title=\"Operation Tannenberg\">Operation Tannenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Intelligenzaktion\" title=\"Intelligenzaktion\">Intelligenzaktion<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_AB-Aktion_in_Poland\" title=\"German AB-Aktion in Poland\"><i>AB-Aktion<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Reinhard\" title=\"Operation Reinhard\">Operation Reinhard<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Russia\" title=\"The Holocaust in Russia\">Russia<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gully_of_Petrushino\" title=\"Gully of Petrushino\">Gully of Petrushino<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zmievskaya_Balka\" title=\"Zmievskaya Balka\">Zmievskaya Balka<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lokot_Autonomy\" title=\"Lokot Autonomy\">Lokot Autonomy<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine\" title=\"The Holocaust in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Babi_Yar\" title=\"Babi Yar\">Babi Yar<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drobytsky_Yar\" title=\"Drobytsky Yar\">Drobytsky Yar<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Drohobycz_Ghetto\" title=\"Drohobycz Ghetto\">Drohobycz<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre\" title=\"Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre\">Kamianets-Podilskyi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lviv_pogroms\" title=\"Lviv pogroms\">Lviv pogroms<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mizocz_Ghetto\" title=\"Mizocz Ghetto\">Mizocz Ghetto<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1941_Odessa_massacre\" title=\"1941 Odessa massacre\">Odessa<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%\">Records<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Black_Book\" title=\"The Black Book\">The Black Book<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Commissar_Order\" title=\"Commissar Order\">Commissar Order<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Einsatzgruppen_trial\" title=\"Einsatzgruppen trial\"><i>Einsatzgruppen<\/i> trial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Generalplan_Ost\" title=\"Generalplan Ost\">Generalplan Ost<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/J%C3%A4ger_Report\" title=\"J\u00e4ger Report\">J\u00e4ger Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Korherr_Report\" title=\"Korherr Report\">Korherr Report<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Special_Prosecution_Book-Poland\" title=\"Special Prosecution Book-Poland\">Special Prosecution Book-Poland (<i>Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen<\/i>)<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"World_War_II\" style=\";wide;padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible collapsed navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\" style=\"background-color:#B0C4DE;\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:World_War_II\" title=\"Template:World War II\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";background-color:#B0C4DE;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:World_War_II\" title=\"Template talk:World War II\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";background-color:#B0C4DE;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:World_War_II&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";background-color:#B0C4DE;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"World_War_II\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\" style=\"background-color:#DCDCDC;\">\n<div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Asiatic-Pacific_Theater\" title=\"Asiatic-Pacific Theater\">Asia and the Pacific<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/South-East_Asian_theatre_of_World_War_II\" title=\"South-East Asian theatre of World War II\">South-East Asia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pacific_Ocean_theater_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Pacific Ocean theater of World War II\">North and Central Pacific<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/South_West_Pacific_theatre_of_World_War_II\" title=\"South West Pacific theatre of World War II\">South-West Pacific<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/European_theatre_of_World_War_II\" title=\"European theatre of World War II\">Europe<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Western_Front_(World_War_II)\" title=\"Western Front (World War II)\">Western<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)\" title=\"Eastern Front (World War II)\">Eastern<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mediterranean_and_Middle_East_theatre_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II\">Mediterranean and Middle East<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/North_African_Campaign\" title=\"North African Campaign\">North Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/East_African_Campaign_(World_War_II)\" title=\"East African Campaign (World War II)\">East Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_Campaign_(World_War_II)\" title=\"Italian Campaign (World War II)\">Italy<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/French_West_Africa_in_World_War_II\" title=\"French West Africa in World War II\">West Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Atlantic\" title=\"Battle of the Atlantic\">Atlantic<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/American_Theater_(World_War_II)\" title=\"American Theater (World War II)\">North America<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Latin_America_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Latin America during World War II\">South America<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_casualties\" title=\"World War II casualties\">Casualties<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_military_engagements_of_World_War_II\" title=\"List of military engagements of World War II\">Military engagements<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Allied_World_War_II_conferences\" title=\"List of Allied World War II conferences\">Conferences<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Commanders_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Commanders of World War II\">Commanders<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_by_country\" title=\"World War II by country\">Participants<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0;;wide\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allies_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Allies of World War II\">Allies<\/a><br \/>\n<span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">(<a href=\"\/wiki\/Allied_leaders_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Allied leaders of World War II\">leaders<\/a>)<\/span><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Australia_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Australia during World War II\">Australia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Belgium_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Belgium in World War II\">Belgium<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Brazil#World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Brazil\">Brazil<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Canada_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Canada during World War II\">Canada<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Second_Sino-Japanese_War\" title=\"Second Sino-Japanese War\">China<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cuba_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Cuba during World War II\">Cuba<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_occupation_of_Czechoslovakia\" title=\"German occupation of Czechoslovakia\">Czechoslovakia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Denmark_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Denmark in World War II\">Denmark<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Second_Italo-Ethiopian_War\" title=\"Second Italo-Ethiopian War\">Ethiopia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/France_during_World_War_II\" title=\"France during World War II\">France<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Free_France\" title=\"Free France\">Free France<\/a> (from June 1940)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Greece_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Greece during World War II\">Greece<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/India_in_World_War_II\" title=\"India in World War II\">India<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_Co-belligerent_Army\" title=\"Italian Co-belligerent Army\">Italy<\/a> (from September 1943)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Luxembourg_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Luxembourg in World War II\">Luxembourg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Mexico#World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Mexico\">Mexico<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_the_Netherlands_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of the Netherlands during World War II\">Netherlands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_New_Zealand_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of New Zealand during World War II\">New Zealand<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Norwegian_Campaign\" title=\"Norwegian Campaign\">Norway<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_the_Philippines_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of the Philippines during World War II\">Philippines<\/a> (Commonwealth)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%9345)\" title=\"History of Poland (1939\u201345)\">Poland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_South_Africa_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of South Africa during World War II\">South Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Southern_Rhodesia_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Southern Rhodesia in World War II\">Southern Rhodesia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_Union_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Soviet Union in World War II\">Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_the_United_Kingdom_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II\">United Kingdom<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_the_United_States_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of the United States during World War II\">United States<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Puerto_Ricans_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Puerto Ricans in World War II\">Puerto Rico<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_in_Yugoslavia\" title=\"World War II in Yugoslavia\">Yugoslavia<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Axis_powers\" title=\"Axis powers\">Axis and<br \/>\nAxis-aligned<\/a><br \/>\n<span style=\"font-weight:normal;\">(<a href=\"\/wiki\/Axis_leaders_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Axis leaders of World War II\">leaders<\/a>)<\/span><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Albanian_Kingdom_(1939%E2%80%9343)\" title=\"Albanian Kingdom (1939\u201343)\">Albania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Bulgaria_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Bulgaria during World War II\">Bulgaria<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reorganized_National_Government_of_the_Republic_of_China\" title=\"Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China\">Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Independent_State_of_Croatia\" title=\"Independent State of Croatia\">Independent State of Croatia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Finland_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Finland during World War II\">Finland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hungary_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Hungary in World War II\">Hungary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Indian_National_Army\" title=\"Indian National Army\">Free India<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anglo-Iraqi_War\" title=\"Anglo-Iraqi War\">Iraq<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_history_of_Italy_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military history of Italy during World War II\">Italy<\/a> (until September 1943)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_Social_Republic\" title=\"Italian Social Republic\">Italian Social Republic<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Empire_of_Japan#Late_Sh.C5.8Dwa_.281937.E2.80.931947.29_.E2.80.93_Expansionism\" title=\"Empire of Japan\">Japan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Manchukuo\" title=\"Manchukuo\">Manchukuo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Second_Philippine_Republic\" title=\"Second Philippine Republic\">Philippines<\/a> (Second Republic)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Romania_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Romania in World War II\">Romania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Slovak_Republic_(1939%E2%80%931945)\" title=\"Slovak Republic (1939\u20131945)\">Slovakia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Thailand_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Thailand in World War II\">Thailand<\/a><br \/><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vichy_France\" title=\"Vichy France\">Vichy France<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Armed_neutrality\" title=\"Armed neutrality\">Armed neutrality<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Resistance_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Resistance during World War II\">Resistance<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Albanian_resistance_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Albanian resistance during World War II\">Albania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Austrian_Resistance\" title=\"Austrian Resistance\">Austria<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Belgian_Resistance\" title=\"Belgian Resistance\">Belgium<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bulgarian_resistance_movement_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Bulgarian resistance movement during World War II\">Bulgaria<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Resistance_in_German-occupied_Czechoslovakia\" title=\"Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia\">Czech lands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Danish_resistance_movement\" title=\"Danish resistance movement\">Denmark<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Estonian_anti-German_resistance_movement_1941%E2%80%9344\" title=\"Estonian anti-German resistance movement 1941\u201344\">Estonia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/East_African_Campaign_(World_War_II)#Ethiopian_irregular_forces\" title=\"East African Campaign (World War II)\">Ethiopia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/French_Resistance\" title=\"French Resistance\">France<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_resistance_to_Nazism\" title=\"German resistance to Nazism\">Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Greek_Resistance\" title=\"Greek Resistance\">Greece<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_occupation_of_Hong_Kong#Anti-Japanese_resistance\" title=\"Japanese occupation of Hong Kong\">Hong Kong<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_resistance_movement\" title=\"Italian resistance movement\">Italy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_dissidence_during_the_early_Sh%C5%8Dwa_period\" title=\"Japanese dissidence during the early Sh\u014dwa period\">Japan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe\" title=\"Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe\">Jewish<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Korean_Liberation_Army\" title=\"Korean Liberation Army\">Korea<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Latvian_anti-Nazi_resistance_movement_1941%E2%80%9345\" title=\"Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941\u201345\">Latvia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Resistance_in_Lithuania_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Resistance in Lithuania during World War II\">Lithuania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Luxembourg_Resistance\" title=\"Luxembourg Resistance\">Luxembourg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Malayan_Peoples%27_Anti-Japanese_Army\" title=\"Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army\">Malaya<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dutch_resistance\" title=\"Dutch resistance\">Netherlands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Northeast_Anti-Japanese_United_Army\" title=\"Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army\">Northeast China<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Norwegian_resistance_movement\" title=\"Norwegian resistance movement\">Norway<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Philippine_resistance_against_Japan\" title=\"Philippine resistance against Japan\">Philippines<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_resistance_movement_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Polish resistance movement in World War II\">Poland<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cursed_soldiers\" title=\"Cursed soldiers\">Anti-communist<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Romanian_anti-communist_resistance_movement\" title=\"Romanian anti-communist resistance movement\">Romania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Free_Thai_Movement\" title=\"Free Thai Movement\">Thailand<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_partisans\" title=\"Soviet partisans\">Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Slovak_National_Uprising\" title=\"Slovak National Uprising\">Slovakia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ukrainian_Insurgent_Army\" title=\"Ukrainian Insurgent Army\">Western Ukraine<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Viet_Minh\" title=\"Viet Minh\">Vietnam<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yugoslav_Partisans\" title=\"Yugoslav Partisans\">Yugoslavia<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Chetniks\" title=\"Chetniks\">Monarchists<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Timeline of World War II\">Timeline<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0;;wide\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Causes_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Causes of World War II\">Prelude<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Abyssinia_Crisis\" title=\"Abyssinia Crisis\">Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Events_preceding_World_War_II_in_Asia\" title=\"Events preceding World War II in Asia\">Asia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Events_preceding_World_War_II_in_Europe\" title=\"Events preceding World War II in Europe\">Europe<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1939)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1939)\">1939<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Invasion_of_Poland\" title=\"Invasion of Poland\">Poland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Phoney_War\" title=\"Phoney War\">Phoney War<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Winter_War\" title=\"Winter War\">Winter War<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Atlantic\" title=\"Battle of the Atlantic\">Atlantic<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Changsha_(1939)\" title=\"Battle of Changsha (1939)\">Changsha<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1939%E2%80%9340_Winter_Offensive\" title=\"1939\u201340 Winter Offensive\">China<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1940)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1940)\">1940<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Weser%C3%BCbung\" title=\"Operation Weser\u00fcbung\"><i>Weser\u00fcbung<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Netherlands\" title=\"Battle of the Netherlands\">Netherlands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Belgium\" title=\"Battle of Belgium\">Belgium<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_France\" title=\"Battle of France\">France<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Armistice_of_22_June_1940\" title=\"Armistice of 22 June 1940\">Armistice of 22 June 1940<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Britain\" title=\"Battle of Britain\">Britain<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Western_Desert_Campaign\" title=\"Western Desert Campaign\">North Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/French_West_Africa_in_World_War_II\" title=\"French West Africa in World War II\">West Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_conquest_of_British_Somaliland\" title=\"Italian conquest of British Somaliland\">British Somaliland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hundred_Regiments_Offensive\" title=\"Hundred Regiments Offensive\">North China<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupation_of_the_Baltic_states\" title=\"Occupation of the Baltic states\">Baltic States<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_occupation_of_Bessarabia_and_Northern_Bukovina\" title=\"Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina\">Moldova<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_invasion_of_French_Indochina\" title=\"Japanese invasion of French Indochina\">Indochina<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Greco-Italian_War\" title=\"Greco-Italian War\">Greece<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Compass\" title=\"Operation Compass\"><i>Compass<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1941)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1941)\">1941<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/East_African_Campaign_(World_War_II)\" title=\"East African Campaign (World War II)\">East Africa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_in_Yugoslavia\" title=\"World War II in Yugoslavia\">Yugoslavia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Shanggao\" title=\"Battle of Shanggao\">Shanggao<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Greece\" title=\"Battle of Greece\">Greece<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Crete\" title=\"Battle of Crete\">Crete<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anglo-Iraqi_War\" title=\"Anglo-Iraqi War\">Iraq<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Barbarossa\" title=\"Operation Barbarossa\">Soviet Union (<i>Barbarossa<\/i>)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Continuation_War\" title=\"Continuation War\">Finland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/June_Uprising_in_Lithuania\" title=\"June Uprising in Lithuania\">Lithuania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Syria%E2%80%93Lebanon_Campaign\" title=\"Syria\u2013Lebanon Campaign\">Syria and Lebanon<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Kiev_(1941)\" title=\"Battle of Kiev (1941)\">Kiev<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anglo-Soviet_invasion_of_Iran\" title=\"Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran\">Iran<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Siege_of_Leningrad\" title=\"Siege of Leningrad\">Leningrad<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Moscow\" title=\"Battle of Moscow\">Moscow<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Siege_of_Sevastopol_(1941%E2%80%9342)\" title=\"Siege of Sevastopol (1941\u201342)\">Sevastopol<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor\" title=\"Attack on Pearl Harbor\">Pearl Harbor<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li>The outbreak of the <a href=\"\/wiki\/Pacific_War\" title=\"Pacific War\">Pacific War<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Hong_Kong\" title=\"Battle of Hong Kong\">Hong Kong<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Philippines_Campaign_(1941%E2%80%9342)\" title=\"Philippines Campaign (1941\u201342)\">Philippines<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Changsha_(1941)\" title=\"Battle of Changsha (1941)\">Changsha<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Malayan_Campaign\" title=\"Malayan Campaign\">Malaya<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Borneo_(1941%E2%80%9342)\" title=\"Battle of Borneo (1941\u201342)\">Borneo (1941\u201342)<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1942)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1942)\">1942<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_conquest_of_Burma\" title=\"Japanese conquest of Burma\">Burma<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Changsha_(1942)\" title=\"Battle of Changsha (1942)\">Changsha<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Java_Sea\" title=\"Battle of the Java Sea\">Java Sea<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Coral_Sea\" title=\"Battle of the Coral Sea\">Coral Sea<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Gazala\" title=\"Battle of Gazala\">Gazala<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Dutch_Harbor\" title=\"Battle of Dutch Harbor\">Dutch Harbor<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_occupation_of_Attu\" title=\"Japanese occupation of Attu\">Attu (occupation)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_occupation_of_Kiska\" title=\"Japanese occupation of Kiska\">Kiska<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zhejiang-Jiangxi_campaign\" title=\"Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign\">Zhejiang-Jiangxi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Midway\" title=\"Battle of Midway\">Midway<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Rzhev,_Summer_1942\" title=\"Battle of Rzhev, Summer 1942\">Rzhev<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Case_Blue\" title=\"Case Blue\">Blue<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Stalingrad\" title=\"Battle of Stalingrad\">Stalingrad<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Singapore\" title=\"Battle of Singapore\">Singapore<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dieppe_Raid\" title=\"Dieppe Raid\">Dieppe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Second_Battle_of_El_Alamein\" title=\"Second Battle of El Alamein\">El Alamein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Guadalcanal_Campaign\" title=\"Guadalcanal Campaign\">Guadalcanal<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Torch\" title=\"Operation Torch\"><i>Torch<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1943)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1943)\">1943<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tunisian_Campaign\" title=\"Tunisian Campaign\">Tunisia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Kursk\" title=\"Battle of Kursk\">Kursk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Smolensk_(1943)\" title=\"Battle of Smolensk (1943)\">Smolensk<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Solomon_Islands_campaign\" title=\"Solomon Islands campaign\">Solomon Islands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Attu\" title=\"Battle of Attu\">Attu<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allied_invasion_of_Sicily\" title=\"Allied invasion of Sicily\">Sicily<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Cottage\" title=\"Operation Cottage\"><i>Cottage<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Dnieper\" title=\"Battle of the Dnieper\">Lower Dnieper<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allied_invasion_of_Italy\" title=\"Allied invasion of Italy\">Italy<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Armistice_of_Cassibile\" title=\"Armistice of Cassibile\">Armistice of Cassibile<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gilbert_and_Marshall_Islands_campaign\" title=\"Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign\">Gilbert and Marshall Islands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Burma_Campaign\" title=\"Burma Campaign\">Burma<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Northern_Burma_and_Western_Yunnan\" title=\"Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan\">Northern Burma and Western Yunnan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Changde\" title=\"Battle of Changde\">Changde<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1944)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1944)\">1944<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Monte_Cassino\" title=\"Battle of Monte Cassino\">Monte Cassino<\/a> \/ <a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Anzio\" title=\"Battle of Anzio\"><i>Shingle<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Narva_(1944)\" title=\"Battle of Narva (1944)\">Narva<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Korsun%E2%80%93Cherkassy_Pocket\" title=\"Battle of the Korsun\u2013Cherkassy Pocket\">Korsun\u2013Cherkassy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Tempest\" title=\"Operation Tempest\"><i>Tempest<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Ichi-Go\" title=\"Operation Ichi-Go\"><i>Ichi-Go<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Overlord\" title=\"Operation Overlord\"><i>Overlord<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Normandy_landings\" title=\"Normandy landings\"><i>Neptune<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Invasion_of_Normandy\" title=\"Invasion of Normandy\">Normandy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mariana_and_Palau_Islands_campaign\" title=\"Mariana and Palau Islands campaign\">Mariana and Palau<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Bagration\" title=\"Operation Bagration\"><i>Bagration<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lvov%E2%80%93Sandomierz_Offensive\" title=\"Lvov\u2013Sandomierz Offensive\">Western Ukraine<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Tannenberg_Line\" title=\"Battle of Tannenberg Line\">Tannenberg Line<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Warsaw_Uprising\" title=\"Warsaw Uprising\">Warsaw<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jassy%E2%80%93Kishinev_Offensive\" title=\"Jassy\u2013Kishinev Offensive\">Eastern Romania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Belgrade_Offensive\" title=\"Belgrade Offensive\">Belgrade<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Liberation_of_Paris\" title=\"Liberation of Paris\">Paris<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Dragoon\" title=\"Operation Dragoon\"><i>Dragoon<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gothic_Line\" title=\"Gothic Line\">Gothic Line<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Market_Garden\" title=\"Operation Market Garden\"><i>Market Garden<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tallinn_Offensive\" title=\"Tallinn Offensive\">Estonia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Crossbow\" title=\"Operation Crossbow\"><i>Crossbow<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Combined_Bomber_Offensive\" title=\"Combined Bomber Offensive\"><i>Pointblank<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lapland_War\" title=\"Lapland War\">Lapland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Budapest_Offensive\" title=\"Budapest Offensive\">Hungary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Leyte_Gulf\" title=\"Battle of Leyte Gulf\">Leyte<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_the_Bulge\" title=\"Battle of the Bulge\">Ardennes<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Bodenplatte\" title=\"Operation Bodenplatte\"><i>Bodenplatte<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Philippines_Campaign_(1944%E2%80%931945)\" title=\"Philippines Campaign (1944\u20131945)\">Philippines (1944\u20131945)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Burma_Campaign_1944%E2%80%9345\" title=\"Burma Campaign 1944\u201345\">Burma (1944\u201345)<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_World_War_II_(1945)\" title=\"Timeline of World War II (1945)\">1945<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vistula%E2%80%93Oder_Offensive\" title=\"Vistula\u2013Oder Offensive\">Vistula\u2013Oder<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima\" title=\"Battle of Iwo Jima\">Iwo Jima<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Western_Allied_invasion_of_Germany\" title=\"Western Allied invasion of Germany\">Western invasion of Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Okinawa\" title=\"Battle of Okinawa\">Okinawa<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Spring_1945_offensive_in_Italy\" title=\"Spring 1945 offensive in Italy\">Italy (Spring 1945)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Borneo_campaign_(1945)\" title=\"Borneo campaign (1945)\">Borneo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Syrmian_Front\" title=\"Syrmian Front\">Syrmian Front<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Berlin\" title=\"Battle of Berlin\">Berlin<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Prague_Offensive\" title=\"Prague Offensive\">Czechoslovakia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Siege_of_Budapest\" title=\"Siege of Budapest\">Budapest<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_West_Hunan\" title=\"Battle of West Hunan\">West Hunan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Second_Guangxi_Campaign\" title=\"Second Guangxi Campaign\">Guangxi<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe\" title=\"End of World War II in Europe\">Surrender of Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Project_Hula\" title=\"Project Hula\">Project Hula<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_invasion_of_Manchuria\" title=\"Soviet invasion of Manchuria\">Manchuria<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Manila_(1945)\" title=\"Battle of Manila (1945)\">Manila<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Borneo_campaign_(1945)\" title=\"Borneo campaign (1945)\">Borneo<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Raid_on_Taihoku\" title=\"Raid on Taihoku\">Taipei<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki\" title=\"Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki\">Atomic bombings<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Debate_over_the_atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki\" title=\"Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki\">Debate<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Invasion_of_the_Kuril_Islands\" title=\"Invasion of the Kuril Islands\">Kuril Islands<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Battle_of_Shumshu\" title=\"Battle of Shumshu\">Shumshu<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Surrender_of_Japan\" title=\"Surrender of Japan\">Surrender of Japan<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/End_of_World_War_II_in_Asia\" title=\"End of World War II in Asia\">End of World War II in Asia<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">Aspects<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0;;wide\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\">General<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\"><\/div>\n<table class=\"nowraplinks navbox-subgroup\" style=\"border-spacing:0\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.75em;\">Famines<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bengal_famine_of_1943\" title=\"Bengal famine of 1943\">Bengal famine of 1943<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Chinese_famine_of_1942%E2%80%9343\" title=\"Chinese famine of 1942\u201343\">Chinese famine of 1942\u201343<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Great_Famine_(Greece)\" title=\"Great Famine (Greece)\">Greek Famine of 1941-1944<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Vietnamese_Famine_of_1945\" title=\"Vietnamese Famine of 1945\">Vietnamese Famine of 1945<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Air_warfare_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Air warfare of World War II\">Air warfare of World War II<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Blitzkrieg\" title=\"Blitzkrieg\">Blitzkrieg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Comparative_officer_ranks_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Comparative officer ranks of World War II\">Comparative military ranks<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_cryptography\" title=\"World War II cryptography\">Cryptography<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Diplomatic_history_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Diplomatic history of World War II\">Diplomacy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Home_front_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Home front during World War II\">Home front<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_home_front_during_World_War_II\" title=\"United States home front during World War II\">United States<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Australian_home_front_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Australian home front during World War II\">Australian<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_the_United_Kingdom_home_front_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II\">United Kingdom<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lend-Lease\" title=\"Lend-Lease\">Lend-Lease<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Manhattan_Project\" title=\"Manhattan Project\">Manhattan Project<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_military_awards_of_World_War_II\" title=\"List of military awards of World War II\">Military awards<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lists_of_World_War_II_military_equipment\" title=\"Lists of World War II military equipment\">Military equipment<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_production_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Military production during World War II\">Military production<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_plunder\" title=\"Nazi plunder\">Nazi plunder<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Opposition_to_World_War_II\" title=\"Category:Opposition to World War II\">Opposition<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Technology_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Technology during World War II\">Technology<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allied_technological_cooperation_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Allied technological cooperation during World War II\">Allied cooperation<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Total_war#World_War_II\" title=\"Total war\">Total war<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Strategic_bombing_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Strategic bombing during World War II\">Strategic bombing<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_World_War_II_puppet_states\" title=\"List of World War II puppet states\">Puppet states<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Women_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Women in World War II\">Women<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Art_and_World_War_II\" title=\"Art and World War II\">Art and World War II<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aftermath_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Aftermath of World War II\">Aftermath<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Flight_and_expulsion_of_Germans_(1944%E2%80%9350)\" title=\"Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944\u201350)\">Expulsion of Germans<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Paperclip\" title=\"Operation Paperclip\">Operation <i>Paperclip<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Osoaviakhim\" title=\"Operation Osoaviakhim\">Operation <i>Osoaviakhim<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Operation_Keelhaul\" title=\"Operation Keelhaul\">Operation <i>Keelhaul<\/i><\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allied-occupied_Germany\" title=\"Allied-occupied Germany\">Occupation of Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Oder%E2%80%93Neisse_line\" title=\"Oder\u2013Neisse line\">Territorial changes of Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Military_occupations_by_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Military occupations by the Soviet Union\">Soviet occupations<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_occupation_of_Romania\" title=\"Soviet occupation of Romania\">Romania<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_People%27s_Republic\" title=\"Polish People's Republic\">Poland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Russian%E2%80%93Hungarian_relations,_1945%E2%80%931991\" title=\"Russian\u2013Hungarian relations, 1945\u20131991\">Hungary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupation_of_the_Baltic_states\" title=\"Occupation of the Baltic states\">Baltic States<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Occupation_of_Japan\" title=\"Occupation of Japan\">Occupation of Japan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/First_Indochina_War\" title=\"First Indochina War\">First Indochina War<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Indonesian_National_Revolution\" title=\"Indonesian National Revolution\">Indonesian National Revolution<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cold_War\" title=\"Cold War\">Cold War<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Decolonization\" title=\"Decolonization\">Decolonization<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Treaty_on_the_Final_Settlement_with_Respect_to_Germany\" title=\"Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany\">Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_in_popular_culture\" title=\"World War II in popular culture\">Popular culture<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crime\" title=\"War crime\">War crimes<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Allied_war_crimes_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Allied war crimes during World War II\">Allied war crimes<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Soviet_war_crimes#World_War_II\" title=\"Soviet war crimes\">Soviet war crimes<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/British_war_crimes#World_War_II\" title=\"British war crimes\">British war crimes<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/United_States_war_crimes#World_War_II\" title=\"United States war crimes\">United States war crimes<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_war_crimes#World_War_II\" title=\"German war crimes\">German<\/a> (<a href=\"\/wiki\/Forced_labour_under_German_rule_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Forced labour under German rule during World War II\">Forced labour<\/a>) \/ <a href=\"\/wiki\/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht\" title=\"War crimes of the Wehrmacht\"><i>Wehrmacht<\/i> war crimes<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust\" title=\"Aftermath of the Holocaust\">Aftermath<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/International_response_to_the_Holocaust\" title=\"International response to the Holocaust\">Response<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_trials\" title=\"Nuremberg trials\">Prosecution<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_war_crimes\" title=\"Italian war crimes\">Italian war crimes<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_war_crimes\" title=\"Japanese war crimes\">Japanese war crimes<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Unit_731\" title=\"Unit 731\">Unit 731<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/International_Military_Tribunal_for_the_Far_East\" title=\"International Military Tribunal for the Far East\">Prosecution<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li>Croatian war crimes\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II_persecution_of_Serbs#Usta.C5.A1e_persecution_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia\" title=\"World War II persecution of Serbs\">against the Serbs<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Holocaust_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia\" title=\"The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia\">against the Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wartime_sexual_violence\" title=\"Wartime sexual violence\">Wartime<br \/>\nsexual violence<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_military_brothels_in_World_War_II\" title=\"German military brothels in World War II\">German military brothels<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_camp_brothels_in_World_War_II\" title=\"German camp brothels in World War II\">Camp brothels<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rape_during_the_occupation_of_Japan\" title=\"Rape during the occupation of Japan\">Rape during the occupation of Japan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sook_Ching\" title=\"Sook Ching\">Sook Ching<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Comfort_women\" title=\"Comfort women\">Comfort women<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nanking_Massacre\" title=\"Nanking Massacre\">Rape of Nanking<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rape_of_Manila\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Rape of Manila\">Rape of Manila<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rape_during_the_occupation_of_Germany\" title=\"Rape during the occupation of Germany\">Rape during the occupation of Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rape_during_the_liberation_of_France\" title=\"Rape during the liberation of France\">Rape during the liberation of France<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rape_during_the_liberation_of_Poland\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Rape during the liberation of Poland\">Rape during the liberation of Poland<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:9.0em;background-color:#DCDCDC;\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Prisoner_of_war\" title=\"Prisoner of war\">Prisoners<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Finnish_prisoners_of_war_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union\">Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_prisoners_of_war_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union\">German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_prisoners_of_war_in_the_United_States\" title=\"German prisoners of war in the United States\">German prisoners of war in the United States<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Italian_prisoners_of_war_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union\">Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_prisoners_of_war_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union\">Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Japanese_prisoners_of_war_in_World_War_II\" title=\"Japanese prisoners of war in World War II\">Japanese prisoners of war in World War II<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war\" title=\"German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war\">German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Polish_prisoners-of-war_in_the_Soviet_Union_after_1939\" title=\"Polish prisoners-of-war in the Soviet Union after 1939\">Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Romanian_prisoners_of_war_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union\">Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"2\" style=\"background-color:#DCDCDC;\">\n<div>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bibliography_of_World_War_II\" title=\"Bibliography of World War II\">Bibliography<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:World_War_II\" title=\"Category:World War II\">Category<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portal:World_War_II\" title=\"Portal:World War II\">Portal<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"Nazism\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks hlist collapsible collapsed navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"3\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Nazism\" title=\"Template:Nazism\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Nazism\" title=\"Template talk:Nazism\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Nazism&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Nazism\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism\" title=\"Nazism\">Nazism<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Organizations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Party\" title=\"Nazi Party\">National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sturmabteilung\" title=\"Sturmabteilung\">Sturmabteilung (SA)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Schutzstaffel\" title=\"Schutzstaffel\">Schutzstaffel (SS)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gestapo\" title=\"Gestapo\">Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hitler_Youth\" title=\"Hitler Youth\">Hitler Youth (HJ)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Flyers_Corps\" title=\"National Socialist Flyers Corps\">National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Motor_Corps\" title=\"National Socialist Motor Corps\">National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/League_of_German_Girls\" title=\"League of German Girls\">League of German Girls (BDM)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_League_of_the_Reich_for_Physical_Exercise\" title=\"National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise\">National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Women%27s_League\" title=\"National Socialist Women's League\">National Socialist Women's League (NSF)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Werwolf\" title=\"Werwolf\">Werwolf<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<td class=\"navbox-image\" rowspan=\"9\" style=\"width:1px;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0.8em 0.9em 3em;\">\n<div><a href=\"\/wiki\/File:National_Socialist_swastika.svg\" class=\"image\" title=\"Nazi Swastika\"><img alt=\"Nazi Swastika\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/b\/bd\/National_Socialist_swastika.svg\/50px-National_Socialist_swastika.svg.png\" width=\"50\" height=\"49\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/b\/bd\/National_Socialist_swastika.svg\/75px-National_Socialist_swastika.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/b\/bd\/National_Socialist_swastika.svg\/100px-National_Socialist_swastika.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"471\" data-file-height=\"458\" \/><\/a><\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">History<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Early_timeline_of_Nazism\" title=\"Early timeline of Nazism\">Early timeline<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler%27s_rise_to_power\" title=\"Adolf Hitler's rise to power\">Adolf Hitler's rise to power<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_seizure_of_power\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Nazi seizure of power\">Machtergreifung<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_re-armament\" title=\"German re-armament\">Re-armament<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Night_of_the_Long_Knives\" title=\"Night of the Long Knives\">Night of the Long Knives<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_Rally\" title=\"Nuremberg Rally\">Nuremberg Rally<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Comintern_Pact\" title=\"Anti-Comintern Pact\">Anti-Comintern Pact<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Kristallnacht\" title=\"Kristallnacht\">Kristallnacht<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_War_II\" title=\"World War II\">World War II<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Tripartite_Pact\" title=\"Tripartite Pact\">Tripartite Pact<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">The Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nuremberg_trials\" title=\"Nuremberg trials\">Nuremberg trials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Denazification\" title=\"Denazification\">Denazification<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Consequences_of_Nazism\" title=\"Consequences of Nazism\">Consequences<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Ideology<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_architecture\" title=\"Nazi architecture\">Architecture<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gleichschaltung\" title=\"Gleichschaltung\">Gleichschaltung<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Criticism_of_democracy\" title=\"Criticism of democracy\">Anti-democratic thought<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Strasserism\" title=\"Strasserism\">Strasserism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Political_views_of_Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Political views of Adolf Hitler\">Hitler's political views<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Mein_Kampf\" title=\"Mein Kampf\">Mein Kampf<\/a><\/i> (<a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Adolf Hitler\">Hitler<\/a>)<\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Myth_of_the_Twentieth_Century\" title=\"The Myth of the Twentieth Century\">Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts<\/a><\/i> (<a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Rosenberg\" title=\"Alfred Rosenberg\">Rosenberg<\/a>)<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Program\" title=\"National Socialist Program\">National Socialist Program<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/New_Order_(Nazism)\" title=\"New Order (Nazism)\">New Order<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Propaganda_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Propaganda in Nazi Germany\">Propaganda<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Religious_aspects_of_Nazism\" title=\"Religious aspects of Nazism\">Religious aspects<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Women_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Women in Nazi Germany\">Women in Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism_and_race\" title=\"Nazism and race\">Race<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Blood_and_Soil\" title=\"Blood and Soil\">Blood and Soil<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_eugenics\" title=\"Nazi eugenics\">Eugenics<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Greater_Germanic_Reich\" title=\"Greater Germanic Reich\">Greater Germanic Reich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heim_ins_Reich\" title=\"Heim ins Reich\">Heim ins Reich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Lebensborn\" title=\"Lebensborn\">Lebensborn<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Master_race\" title=\"Master race\">Master race<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Racial policy of Nazi Germany\">Racial policy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Religion_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Religion in Nazi Germany\">Religion<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Atrocities<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aktion_T4\" title=\"Aktion T4\">Action T4<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Final_Solution\" title=\"Final Solution\">Final Solution<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_human_experimentation\" title=\"Nazi human experimentation\">Human experimentation<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Porajmos\" title=\"Porajmos\">Porajmos<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Outside<br \/>\nGermany<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li>Nazism in the United States\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/American_Nazi_Party\" title=\"American Nazi Party\">American Nazi Party<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_American_Bund\" title=\"German American Bund\">German American Bund<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Movement_(United_States)\" title=\"National Socialist Movement (United States)\">National Socialist Movement (United States)<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Arrow_Cross_Party\" title=\"Arrow Cross Party\">Arrow Cross Party (Hungary)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bulgarian_National_Socialist_Workers_Party\" title=\"Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party\">Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_National_Movement_in_Liechtenstein\" title=\"German National Movement in Liechtenstein\">German National Movement in Liechtenstein<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Greek_National_Socialist_Party\" title=\"Greek National Socialist Party\">Greek National Socialist Party<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/South_African_Gentile_National_Socialist_Movement\" title=\"South African Gentile National Socialist Movement\">South African Gentile National Socialist Movement<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hungarian_National_Socialist_Party\" title=\"Hungarian National Socialist Party\">Hungarian National Socialist Party<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nasjonal_Samling\" title=\"Nasjonal Samling\">Nasjonal Samling (Norway)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Movement_of_Switzerland\" title=\"National Movement of Switzerland\">National Movement of Switzerland<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Movement_in_the_Netherlands\" title=\"National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands\">National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Bloc\" title=\"National Socialist Bloc\">National Socialist Bloc (Sweden)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_League\" title=\"National Socialist League\">National Socialist League (UK)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Movement_of_Chile\" title=\"National Socialist Movement of Chile\">National Socialist Movement of Chile<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Socialist_Workers%27_Party_of_Denmark\" title=\"National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark\">National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/National_Unity_Party_(Canada)\" title=\"National Unity Party (Canada)\">National Unity Party (Canada)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nationalist_Liberation_Alliance\" title=\"Nationalist Liberation Alliance\">Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism_in_Brazil\" title=\"Nazism in Brazil\">Nazism in Brazil<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ossewabrandwag\" title=\"Ossewabrandwag\">Ossewabrandwag (South Africa)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/World_Union_of_National_Socialists\" title=\"World Union of National Socialists\">World Union of National Socialists<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Lists<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_books_by_or_about_Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"List of books by or about Adolf Hitler\">Books by or about Hitler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_ideologues\" title=\"List of Nazi ideologues\">Ideologues<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazi_Party_leaders_and_officials\" title=\"List of Nazi Party leaders and officials\">Leaders and officials<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_Nazis\" title=\"List of Nazis\">Nazi Party members<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_speeches_given_by_Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"List of speeches given by Adolf Hitler\">Speeches given by Hitler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_SS_personnel\" title=\"List of SS personnel\">SS personnel<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">People<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Hitler\" title=\"Adolf Hitler\">Adolf Hitler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joseph_Goebbels\" title=\"Joseph Goebbels\">Joseph Goebbels<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Heinrich_Himmler\" title=\"Heinrich Himmler\">Heinrich Himmler<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring\" title=\"Hermann G\u00f6ring\">Hermann G\u00f6ring<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Bormann\" title=\"Martin Bormann\">Martin Bormann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reinhard_Heydrich\" title=\"Reinhard Heydrich\">Reinhard Heydrich<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gregor_Strasser\" title=\"Gregor Strasser\">Gregor Strasser<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Otto_Strasser\" title=\"Otto Strasser\">Otto Strasser<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Albert_Speer\" title=\"Albert Speer\">Albert Speer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_Hess\" title=\"Rudolf Hess\">Rudolf Hess<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner\" title=\"Ernst Kaltenbrunner\">Ernst Kaltenbrunner<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Adolf_Eichmann\" title=\"Adolf Eichmann\">Adolf Eichmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Joachim_von_Ribbentrop\" title=\"Joachim von Ribbentrop\">Joachim von Ribbentrop<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Houston_Stewart_Chamberlain\" title=\"Houston Stewart Chamberlain\">Houston Stewart Chamberlain<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Alfred_Rosenberg\" title=\"Alfred Rosenberg\">Alfred Rosenberg<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Wilhelm_Frick\" title=\"Wilhelm Frick\">Wilhelm Frick<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hans_Frank\" title=\"Hans Frank\">Hans Frank<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Rudolf_H%C3%B6ss\" title=\"Rudolf H\u00f6ss\">Rudolf H\u00f6ss<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Josef_Mengele\" title=\"Josef Mengele\">Josef Mengele<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Richard_Walther_Darr%C3%A9\" title=\"Richard Walther Darr\u00e9\">Richard Walther Darr\u00e9<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Baldur_von_Schirach\" title=\"Baldur von Schirach\">Baldur von Schirach<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Artur_Axmann\" title=\"Artur Axmann\">Artur Axmann<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_R%C3%B6hm\" title=\"Ernst R\u00f6hm\">Ernst R\u00f6hm<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dietrich_Eckart\" title=\"Dietrich Eckart\">Dietrich Eckart<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gottfried_Feder\" title=\"Gottfried Feder\">Gottfried Feder<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ernst_Hanfstaengl\" title=\"Ernst Hanfstaengl\">Ernst Hanfstaengl<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Julius_Streicher\" title=\"Julius Streicher\">Julius Streicher<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hermann_Esser\" title=\"Hermann Esser\">Hermann Esser<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/George_Lincoln_Rockwell\" title=\"George Lincoln Rockwell\">George Lincoln Rockwell<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Related<br \/>\ntopics<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Esoteric_Nazism\" title=\"Esoteric Nazism\">Esoteric Nazism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Far-right_politics\" title=\"Far-right politics\">Far-right politics<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/German_resistance_to_Nazism\" title=\"German resistance to Nazism\">German resistance<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Glossary_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Glossary of Nazi Germany\">Glossary of Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_salute\" title=\"Nazi salute\">Nazi salute<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Neo-Nazism\" title=\"Neo-Nazism\">Neo-Nazism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Social_Darwinism\" title=\"Social Darwinism\">Social Darwinism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stormfront_(website)\" title=\"Stormfront (website)\">Stormfront<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Swastika\" title=\"Swastika\">Swastika<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/V%C3%B6lkisch_movement\" title=\"V\u00f6lkisch movement\">V\u00f6lkisch movement<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zweites_Buch\" title=\"Zweites Buch\">Zweites Buch<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<td class=\"navbox-abovebelow\" colspan=\"3\">\n<div>\n<ul>\n<li><img alt=\"Category\" src=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/48\/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg\/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png\" title=\"Category\" width=\"16\" height=\"14\" srcset=\"\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/48\/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg\/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, \/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/en\/thumb\/4\/48\/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg\/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x\" data-file-width=\"36\" data-file-height=\"31\" \/> <b><a href=\"\/wiki\/Category:Nazism\" title=\"Category:Nazism\">Category<\/a><\/b><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"Antisemitism\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Antisemitism_topics\" title=\"Template:Antisemitism topics\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Antisemitism_topics\" title=\"Template talk:Antisemitism topics\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Antisemitism_topics&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Antisemitism\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism\" title=\"Antisemitism\">Antisemitism<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Core topics<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Xenophobia\" title=\"Xenophobia\">Xenophobia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/History_of_antisemitism\" title=\"History of antisemitism\">History<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Timeline_of_antisemitism\" title=\"Timeline of antisemitism\">Timeline<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Geography_of_antisemitism\" title=\"Geography of antisemitism\">Geography<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Religious_antisemitism\" title=\"Religious antisemitism\">Religious antisemitism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitic_canard\" title=\"Antisemitic canard\">Canards<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Persecution_of_Jews\" title=\"Persecution of Jews\">Persecution of Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/New_antisemitism\" title=\"New antisemitism\">New antisemitism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_antisemitism\" title=\"Racial antisemitism\">Racial antisemitism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Secondary_antisemitism\" title=\"Secondary antisemitism\">Secondary antisemitism<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Antisemitism and<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Christianity_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Christianity and antisemitism\">Christianity<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Islam_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Islam and antisemitism\">Islam<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nation_of_Islam_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Nation of Islam and antisemitism\">the Nation of Islam<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Semitism_in_International_Brigades\" title=\"Anti-Semitism in International Brigades\">International Brigades<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Universities_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Universities and antisemitism\">Universities<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Related topics<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Zionism\" title=\"Anti-Zionism\">Anti-Zionism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_International_Jew\" title=\"The International Jew\">The International Jew<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jewish_Bolshevism\" title=\"Jewish Bolshevism\">Jewish Bolshevism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ku_Klux_Klan\" title=\"Ku Klux Klan\">Ku Klux Klan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Propaganda_in_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Propaganda in Nazi Germany\">Nazi propaganda<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Philo-Semitism\" title=\"Philo-Semitism\">Philo-Semitism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion\" title=\"The Protocols of the Elders of Zion\">The Protocols of the Elders of Zion<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Self-hating_Jew\" title=\"Self-hating Jew\">Self-hating Jew<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Religious_antisemitism\" title=\"Religious antisemitism\">Religious antisemitism<\/a><\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Judaism\" title=\"Anti-Judaism\">Anti-Judaism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Martin_Luther_and_antisemitism\" title=\"Martin Luther and antisemitism\">Martin Luther<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Spanish_Inquisition\" title=\"Spanish Inquisition\">Spanish Inquisition<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Portuguese_Inquisition\" title=\"Portuguese Inquisition\">Portuguese Inquisition<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Blood_curse\" title=\"Blood curse\">Blood curse<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Blood_libel\" title=\"Blood libel\">Blood libel<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Host_desecration\" title=\"Host desecration\">Host desecration<\/a><\/li>\n<li><i><a href=\"\/wiki\/Judensau\" title=\"Judensau\">Judensau<\/a><\/i><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom\" title=\"Pogrom\">Pogrom<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;\">Antisemitic laws, policies<br \/>\nand government actions<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ghetto_benches\" title=\"Ghetto benches\">Ghetto benches<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hep-Hep_riots\" title=\"Hep-Hep riots\">Hep-Hep riots<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Pogrom#In_the_Russian_Empire\" title=\"Pogrom\">Pogroms in the Russian Empire<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/May_Laws\" title=\"May Laws\">May Laws<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/1968_Polish_political_crisis\" title=\"1968 Polish political crisis\">1968 Polish political crisis<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Leo_Frank\" title=\"Leo Frank\">Leo Frank trial (USA)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Dreyfus_affair\" title=\"Dreyfus affair\">Dreyfus Affair (France)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Farhud\" title=\"Farhud\">Farhud (Iraq)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/General_Order_No._11_(1862)\" title=\"General Order No. 11 (1862)\">General Order No. 11 (USA, 1862)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Historical_negationism\" title=\"Historical negationism\">Historical revisionism (negationism)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazism\" title=\"Nazism\">Nazi<\/a> <a href=\"\/wiki\/Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Nazi Germany\">Germany<\/a> <a class=\"mw-selflink selflink\">and the Holocaust<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany\" title=\"Racial policy of Nazi Germany\">Racial policy of Nazi Germany<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Holocaust_denial\" title=\"Holocaust denial\">Holocaust denial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Zionist_Occupation_Government_conspiracy_theory\" title=\"Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory\">The Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Antisemitic websites<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bible_Believers\" title=\"Bible Believers\">Bible Believers<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Daily_Stormer\" title=\"The Daily Stormer\">The Daily Stormer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Institute_for_Historical_Review\" title=\"Institute for Historical Review\">Institute for Historical Review<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Jew_Watch\" title=\"Jew Watch\">Jew Watch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Metapedia\" title=\"Metapedia\">Metapedia<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Craig_Cobb\" title=\"Craig Cobb\">Podblanc<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Radio_Islam\" title=\"Radio Islam\">Radio Islam<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Redwatch\" title=\"Redwatch\">Redwatch<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/The_Right_Stuff_(blog)\" title=\"The Right Stuff (blog)\">The Right Stuff<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stormfront_(website)\" title=\"Stormfront (website)\">Stormfront<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">\n<div style=\"padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;\">Organizations working<br \/>\nagainst antisemitism<\/div>\n<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-Defamation_League\" title=\"Anti-Defamation League\">Anti-Defamation League (ADL)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Bay_Area_Holocaust_Oral_History_Project\" title=\"Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project\">Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project (BAHOHP)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Middle_East_Media_Research_Institute\" title=\"Middle East Media Research Institute\">Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Scholars_for_Peace_in_the_Middle_East\" title=\"Scholars for Peace in the Middle East\">Scholars for Peace in the Middle East (SPME)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Simon_Wiesenthal_Center\" title=\"Simon Wiesenthal Center\">Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Southern_Poverty_Law_Center\" title=\"Southern Poverty Law Center\">Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC)<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Stephen_Roth_Institute\" title=\"Stephen Roth Institute\">Stephen Roth Institute<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Yad_Vashem\" title=\"Yad Vashem\">Yad Vashem<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Locations<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_Arab_world\" title=\"Antisemitism in the Arab world\">Arab world<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Europe\" title=\"Antisemitism in Europe\">Europe<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_contemporary_Austria\" title=\"Antisemitism in contemporary Austria\">Austria<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Canada\" title=\"Antisemitism in Canada\">Canada<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_21st-century_France\" title=\"Antisemitism in 21st-century France\">France<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Greece\" title=\"Antisemitism in Greece\">Greece<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_contemporary_Hungary\" title=\"Antisemitism in contemporary Hungary\">Hungary<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_21st-century_Italy\" title=\"Antisemitism in 21st-century Italy\">Italy<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Japan\" title=\"Antisemitism in Japan\">Japan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Norway\" title=\"Antisemitism in Norway\">Norway<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Pakistan\" title=\"Antisemitism in Pakistan\">Pakistan<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Russia\" title=\"Antisemitism in Russia\">Russia<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_Russian_Empire\" title=\"Antisemitism in the Russian Empire\">Imperial<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_Soviet_Union\" title=\"Antisemitism in the Soviet Union\">Soviet<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Spain\" title=\"Antisemitism in Spain\">Spain<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Sweden\" title=\"Antisemitism in Sweden\">Sweden<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Turkey\" title=\"Antisemitism in Turkey\">Turkey<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Ukraine\" title=\"Antisemitism in Ukraine\">Ukraine<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_United_Kingdom\" title=\"Antisemitism in the United Kingdom\">United Kingdom<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_the_United_States\" title=\"Antisemitism in the United States\">United States<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Antisemitism_in_Venezuela\" title=\"Antisemitism in Venezuela\">Venezuela<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<\/table>\n<\/div>\n<div role=\"navigation\" class=\"navbox\" aria-labelledby=\"Racism\" style=\"padding:3px\">\n<table class=\"nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner\" style=\"border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"col\" class=\"navbox-title\" colspan=\"2\">\n<div class=\"plainlinks hlist navbar mini\">\n<ul>\n<li class=\"nv-view\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template:Racism_topics\" title=\"Template:Racism topics\"><abbr title=\"View this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">v<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-talk\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Template_talk:Racism_topics\" title=\"Template talk:Racism topics\"><abbr title=\"Discuss this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">t<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<li class=\"nv-edit\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/w\/index.php?title=Template:Racism_topics&action=edit\"><abbr title=\"Edit this template\" style=\";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;\">e<\/abbr><\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<div id=\"Racism\" style=\"font-size:114%;margin:0 4em\"><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism\" title=\"Racism\">Racism<\/a><\/div>\n<\/th>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Types of racism<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-odd hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_antisemitism\" title=\"Racial antisemitism\">Against Jews<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Aversive_racism\" title=\"Aversive racism\">Aversive<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Black_supremacy\" title=\"Black supremacy\">Among Black people<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/White_supremacy\" title=\"White supremacy\">Among White people<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_the_LGBT_community\" title=\"Racism in the LGBT community\">Among LGBT people<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Interminority_racism_in_the_United_States\" title=\"Interminority racism in the United States\">Among US minorities<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Discrimination_based_on_skin_color\" title=\"Discrimination based on skin color\">Colorism<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hipster_racism\" title=\"Hipster racism\">Among Hipsters<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Shopping_while_black\" title=\"Shopping while black\">Consumer<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Covert_racism\" title=\"Covert racism\">Covert<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cultural_racism\" class=\"mw-redirect\" title=\"Cultural racism\">Cultural<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Environmental_racism\" title=\"Environmental racism\">Environmental<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Gendered_racism\" title=\"Gendered racism\">Gendered<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Institutional_racism\" title=\"Institutional racism\">Institutional<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Internalized_racism\" title=\"Internalized racism\">Internalized<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_nationalism\" title=\"Racial nationalism\">Nationalist<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/New_racism\" title=\"New racism\">New racism<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Neo-racism\" title=\"Neo-racism\">Neo-racism<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Reverse_racism\" title=\"Reverse racism\">Reverse<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Romantic_racism\" title=\"Romantic racism\">Romantic<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racist_love\" title=\"Racist love\">Love<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sexual_racism\" title=\"Sexual racism\">Sexual<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Scientific_racism\" title=\"Scientific racism\">Scientific<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Societal_racism\" title=\"Societal racism\">Societal<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Symbolic_racism\" title=\"Symbolic racism\">Symbolic<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/div>\n<\/td>\n<\/tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" class=\"navbox-group\" style=\"width:1%\">Manifestations<br \/>\nof racism<\/th>\n<td class=\"navbox-list navbox-even hlist\" style=\"text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px\">\n<div style=\"padding:0em 0.25em\">\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-miscegenation_laws\" title=\"Anti-miscegenation laws\">Anti-miscegenation laws<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hate_speech\" title=\"Hate speech\">Expression<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_stereotype\" title=\"Ethnic stereotype\">in the media<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_the_work_of_Charles_Dickens\" title=\"Racism in the work of Charles Dickens\">in Charles Dickens' works<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racist_music\" title=\"Racist music\">in music<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_early_American_film\" title=\"Racism in early American film\">in early US films<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><small><a href=\"\/wiki\/Censored_Eleven\" title=\"Censored Eleven\">Censored Eleven<\/a><\/small><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_horror_films\" title=\"Racism in horror films\">in horror films<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_pornography\" title=\"Ethnic pornography\">in porn<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Cyber_racism\" title=\"Cyber racism\">online<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_bias_on_Wikipedia\" title=\"Racial bias on Wikipedia\">on Wikipedia<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_sport\" title=\"Racism in sport\">in sport<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Baseball_color_line\" title=\"Baseball color line\">baseball<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_martial_arts\" title=\"Racism in martial arts\">martial arts<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_association_football\" title=\"Racism in association football\">soccer<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Anti-bias_curriculum\" title=\"Anti-bias curriculum\">in school curricula<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racism_in_United_States_politics\" title=\"Racism in United States politics\">in US politics<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_joke\" title=\"Ethnic joke\">Jokes<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/List_of_ethnic_slurs\" title=\"List of ethnic slurs\">Slurs<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Sociology_of_race_and_ethnic_relations\" title=\"Sociology of race and ethnic relations\">Racial antagonism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Biological_determinism\" title=\"Biological determinism\">Racial determinism<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Ethnic_hatred\" title=\"Ethnic hatred\">Racial hatred<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_hierarchy\" title=\"Racial hierarchy\">Racial hierarchy<\/a>\n<ul>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Casta\" title=\"Casta\">Casta<\/a><\/li>\n<\/ul>\n<\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_polarization\" title=\"Racial polarization\">Racial polarization<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Racial_quota\" title=\"Racial quota\">Racial quota<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hate_speech_laws_in_Australia\" title=\"Hate speech laws in Australia\">Racial vilification<\/a><\/li>\n<li><a href=\"\/wiki\/Hate_crime\" title=\"Hate crime\">